The first eight of this large class of Pacifics were designated class C. 450-451 (works numbers 42439-42440 in April 1907) were the lightest of the sixteen, showing an adhesion weight of 144,200 lb, an engine weight in operating condition of 222,600 lb, and 140,000 lb in a full tender.
The other six C class--452-457, works numbers 46036-46038 in March 1909, 47731 in June 1910, and 49205-49206 in February 1911) weighed as shown in this entry's spcifications.
The next five--458-462--designated C-1 (works numbers 50940-50941 in April 1912, 52985-52986, 53291 in March 1913) were the first to be delivered with superheaters. C-1s had only 8 sq ft (0.75 sq m) of arch tubes, trailed a heavier tender (146,500 lb) that had 7,500 US gallons, but weighed slightly less overall . Firebox heating surface area amounted to 183 sq ft (17.0 sq m), which combined with the tube and flue heating surface area for an evaporative heating surface area of 2,718 sq ft (252.5 sq m).
The last three--463-465--were dubbed C-2 (54568-54570 in March 1914). They put a bit more weight on the drivers (150,000 lb/68,039 kg). The center axle (which took the thrust from the main rod) turned inside journals that had 9 1/2" (241 mm) diameter and a length of 19" (483 mm), a sizable difference compared to the 9 x 12 (229 x 305 mm) journals of most of the earlier locomotives or even the 9 1/2" x 16" (241 x 406 mm) later fitted to 450-451. The 1923 diagram book shows a firebox heating surface area of 237.6 sq ft (22.07 sq m) that included 23 sq ft (2.15 sq m) of arch tubes.
All sixteen had 12" (305 mm) piston valves.
By the time of their retirements in the mid-1950s, most of the class had had the 8 sq ft of arch tubes (i.e., one arch tube) removed from the firebox in favor of 51 sq ft of thermic syphons. In addition to increasing direct heating surface area, the change raised overall heating surface area to the figure given in the specifications.
These were the last five Pacifics bought by the MEC and they arrived in two batches -- three in 1917, two more in 1924. Cylinder volume increased considerably over the C, C-1, and C-2s (Locobase 6527) while boiler pressure was set 15 psi lower. Weights and tender capacities in this entry represent the first three as delivered in 1917. They had 14" (356 mm) piston valves and Ragonnet power reverse. The last two--designated C-3B--came seven years later.
Refits in 1933-1934 reduced cylinder diameter by an inch and increased boiler pressure rose to 195 psi; see Locobase 15893.
In 1933, the Maine Central reworked the C class Pacifics that entered service in 1917 and 1924 (Locobase 2803), adjusting the balance between cylinder volume, boiler and firebox areas, and boiler pressure. They retained their 14" (356 mm) piston valves and the grate area remained the same. Cylinder diameter decreased by an inch; the 10 psi rise in boiler pressure didn't fully ameliorate the decrease in tractive effort. On the other hand, rearranging the firebox to hold two arch tubes totalling 12.7 sq ft (1.2 sq m) of arch tubes and two thermic syphons comprising 51.7 sq ft (4.7 sq m) of heating surface area contributed to more vigorous steam production. A further striving for efficient steaming came in the adoption of the Coffin feedwater heater.
The Waterville, Maine website (http://waterville-me.gov/470/history.html, last accessed 11 April 2008) carried an article by David Albert from 2006 in which he describes 470's service in greater detail:
"The 470 was built to handle the heavy 10 or 12 car passenger trains between Portland and Bangor. She operated on such trains as the (Flying YankeeOuml;, (Pine Tree LimitedOuml;, (Bar Harbor ExpressOuml;. (The KennebecOuml;, (State of Maine ExpressOuml; and the (GullOuml;, an overnight Boston to St. John, New Brunswick train. The 470 also hauled trains on the Portland to Boston route over the Boston & Maine RR when the two roads were under joint management. It was not uncommon to see the 470 and other Maine Central locomotives at North Station in Boston during the period 1932 to 1953."
|Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media|
|Class||C, C-1, C-2||C-3, C-3B||C-3, C-3B-24"" cylinders|
|Railroad||Maine Central (MEC)||Maine Central (MEC)||Maine Central (MEC)|
|Number in Class||16||5||5|
|Locomotive Length and Weight|
|Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)||13 / 3.96||13 / 3.96||13 / 3.96|
|Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)||33.67 / 10.26||33.67 / 9.04||34.34 / 10.47|
|Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase||0.39||0.39||0.38|
|Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)||67 / 20.42||68.50 / 20.88||68.50 / 20.88|
|Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)|
|Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)||146,800 / 65,408||159,900 / 72,530||177,200 / 80,377|
|Engine Weight (lbs / kg)||228,000 / 100,970||268,300 / 117,934||280,600 / 127,278|
|Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)||140,000 / 63,503||157,000 / 70,760||190,800 / 86,546|
|Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)||368,000 / 164,473||425,300 / 188,694||471,400 / 213,824|
|Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)||7000 / 26.52||8000 / 30.30||9200 / 34.85|
|Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)||11 / 10||14 / 12.70||13 / 11.80|
|Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)||82 / 41||89 / 44.50||98 / 49|
|Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort|
|Driver Diameter (in / mm)||73 / 1854||73 / 1854||73 / 1854|
|Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)||200 / 13.80||185 / 13.40||195 / 13.40|
|High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)||22" x 28" / 559x711||25" x 28" / 610x711||24" x 28" / 610x711|
|Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)||31,559 / 14314.94||37,697 / 17099.09||36,619 / 16610.12|
|Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort)||4.65||4.24||4.84|
|Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)||226 / 21||273 / 28.96||311.70 / 28.96|
|Grate Area (sq ft / m2)||50.20 / 4.67||56.50 / 5.25||56.50 / 5.25|
|Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)||2761 / 256.60||2973 / 276.20||3033 / 281.77|
|Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)||574 / 53.35||636 / 59.09||636 / 59.09|
|Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)||3335 / 309.95||3609 / 335.29||3669 / 340.86|
|Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume||224.12||186.89||206.88|
|Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)|
|Robert LeMassena's Power Computation||10,040||10,453||11,018|
|Same as above plus superheater percentage||11,747||12,334||12,890|
|Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area||52,884||59,596||71,114|