The first of the N&W's "Mollies" (as the crews called these 4-8-0s), these engines were supplied by Alco-Richmond (75) and Baldwin (50). In a long, and very good essay on the N&W "Remarkable 4-8-0s", Thomas Dressler (on http://www.railfan.com/a081995.html) notes that these engines were the railroad's main-line freight haulers and very successful this first batch were. Described as a Consolidation with a 4-ft longer boiler, these engines didn't break any new ground but did provide better riding qualities and more power on essentially the same wheelbase.
Other features in these engines were the two arch tubes (which contributed 19 sq ft/1.77 sq m) to the firebox heating surface area) and high-grade refractory brick, 12" (305 mm) piston valves, main rod on the second driving axle, no deck behind the firebox (soon outlawed).
The RAG profiled these engines and noted in particular the very small leading bogie wheels (27" in diameter) and the long piston stroke. At that time the boiler had 258 tubes with a total heating surface of 2,778 sq ft. As with most locomotives, the design gained weight. Originally the adhesion weight was 168,000 lb and the engine grossed an even 100 tons in operating order. The small tender carried 6,000 US gallons of water and 10 tons of coal; the locomotive and tender's total length at that time was 53 ft 7 ".
10 were eventually superheated, and 30 were refitted with Baker valve gear. All were equipped with power reversing gear in the late 1930s.
An M was rated at an even 1,000 tons eastbound from Norfolk to Petersburg and 1,050 westbound.
A follow-on order of "Mollies" produced by Alco-Richmond (50) and Baldwin (50). Thomas Dressler (on http://www.railfan.com/a081995.html) notes that these engines were essentially the same as the Ms delivered a year earlier (Locobase 2500) except that they used Walschaert valve gear and 12" (305 mm) piston valves instead of Stephenson. And therein lay the rub, according to Dressler: "...the centerline of the piston valve was two inches inside the centerline of the cylinders, and a rocker arm was needed to actuate the valve rod. Due to a poor design, scuffing between the link block and face resulted in excessive wear. It was virtually impossible to keep the valve gear in alignment and the valves properly set."
Only one of the 100 received a superheater. Not surprisingly, when the N&W began phasing out older freight power, these M1s were the first to go.
Baldwin-built M2s had Walschaert gear, but the Roanoke-built M2a (3), M2b (2), and the M2c (6) all had Baker gear. Many later received superheaters and mechanical stokers; see Locobase 6654. Arch tubes contributed 13 sq ft (1.21 sq m) to the firebox heating surface area.
Even when upgraded, says Thomas Dressler (http://www.railfan.com/a081995.html), they were "very unpopular" because of their rough riding qualities and poor steaming. The poor steaming -- probably due to a very small firebox heating surface area -- persisted despite substantial modifications to the front end. Most survived until the late 1950s because they were the only non-articulated freight engines the N&W ever had. Their tonnage rating eastbound from Norfolk to Petersburg was 1,750 tons slow freight, 1,850 tons westbound. From Williamson to Portsmouth (Ohio), , an M2 was expected to move 3,600 tons. On a route that included the 0.32% ten-mile Kingston hill between Portsmouth and Joyce, the rating was 3,100 tons.
Farrington (Railroading Coast-to-Coast, 1976) says this was the heaviest Mastodon (4-8-0) class ever built. Two were rebuilt after World War II for yard duties.
See the full entry at Locobase 939 for this last of the Twelve-wheelers produced for the N& . Sometime after their introduction, the Roanoake shops overhauled the design by adding superheat. As we note in 939, the crews didn't find much of a difference in the locomotive's performance.
|Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media|
|Class||M||M1||M2||M2 - superheated|
|Railroad||Norfolk & Western (N&W)||Norfolk & Western (N&W)||Norfolk & Western (N&W)||Norfolk & Western (N&W)|
|Number in Class||125||100||61||61|
|Valve Gear||Stephenson||Walschaert||Baker or Walschaert||Baker|
|Locomotive Length and Weight|
|Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)||15.50 / 4.72||15.50 / 4.72||16 / 4.88||16 / 4.88|
|Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)||26.42 / 8.05||26.42 / 8.05||27.08 / 8.25||27.08 / 8.25|
|Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase||0.59||0.59||0.59||0.59|
|Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)||58.37 / 17.79||53.58 / 16.33||61.96 / 18.89||62.21 / 18.96|
|Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)|
|Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)||169,800 / 77,020||165,850 / 75,228||221,780 / 100,598||239,530 / 108,649|
|Engine Weight (lbs / kg)||206,200 / 93,531||204,500 / 92,760||261,100 / 118,433||279,530 / 126,793|
|Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)||167,500 / 75,977||116,600 / 52,889||167,500 / 75,977||167,500 / 75,977|
|Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)||373,700 / 169,508||321,100 / 145,649||428,600 / 194,410||447,030 / 202,770|
|Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)||9000 / 34.09||6000 / 22.73||9000 / 34.09||9000 / 34.09|
|Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)||14 / 12.70||10 / 9.10||14 / 12.70||14 / 12.70|
|Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)||71 / 35.50||69 / 34.50||92 / 46||100 / 50|
|Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort|
|Driver Diameter (in / mm)||56 / 1422||56 / 1422||56 / 1422||56 / 1422|
|Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)||200 / 13.80||200 / 13.80||200 / 13.80||200 / 13.80|
|High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)||21" x 30" / 533x762||21" x 30" / 533x762||24" x 30" / 610x762||24" x 30" / 610x762|
|Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)||40,163 / 18217.65||40,163 / 18217.65||52,457 / 23794.12||52,457 / 23794.12|
|Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort)||4.23||4.13||4.23||4.57|
|Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)||173 / 16.08||173 / 16.08||192 / 17.84||179 / 16.64|
|Grate Area (sq ft / m2)||45 / 4.18||45 / 4.18||44.70 / 4.15||45 / 4.18|
|Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)||2797 / 259.94||2797 / 259.94||4473 / 415.55||3586 / 333.27|
|Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)||765 / 71.10|
|Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)||2797 / 259.94||2797 / 259.94||4473 / 415.55||4351 / 404.37|
|Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume||232.57||232.57||284.76||228.29|
|Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)|
|Robert LeMassena's Power Computation||9000||9000||8940||9000|
|Same as above plus superheater percentage||9000||9000||8940||10,620|
|Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area||34,600||34,600||38,400||42,244|