This batch of sixteen 4-8-2s were delivered in 1923 and was designated as Class U-1-a and assigned road numbers 6000 through 6015. These locomotives had 26 x 30 cylinders, 73" drivers, a 210 psi boiler pressure and exerted 49,588 lbs of tractive effort. They weighed 354,110 lbs and were used on express passenger trains between Montreal and Toronto.
Twenty-one more "Mountains" were delivered from the Canadian Locomotive Company during 1924 and 1925. These locomotives were designated as Class U-1-b and given road numbers 6016 through 6036. They were similar to the Class U-1-a "Mountains" and were added to the passenger motive power roster.
Five more 4-8-2s (Class U-1-d, road numbers 6042 through 6046) from the Canadian Locomotive Company and twelve more 4-8-2s (Class U-1-e, road numbers 6047 through 6058) from the Montreal Locomotive Works were delivered in 1929 and 1930. These last two groups had minor improvements but were essentially the same as the sixteen delivered in 1923.
A final batch of twenty "Mountains" were delivered by the Montreal Locomotive Works in 1944. This group was designated as Class U-1-f and assigned road numbers 6060 through 6079. These very heavy (416,500 lbs) locomotives were semi-streamlined and intended to be used primarily for fast passenger service. Some were also used in a dual freight and passenger capacity. They were capable of reaching speeds up to 100 miles per hour.
The U-1-f class locomotives had a distinguishing conical nose which housed the headlight and the number lamps. The stack was flaired after the British style. They were normally painted in CNR's passenger colors of black with green board skirts, cab and tender. Some of them were eventually converted to burn oil.
There are five surviving CNR "Mountains".
On the Central Vermont, the "Mountains" were used on through trains and regularly led the "The Ambassador", "The Montrealer", "The New Englander" and "The Washingtonian". Occasionally, they were used in freight service. Number 602 was the last steam locomotive to pull a freight train on the Central Vermont Railroad.
Numbers 600, 601 and 603 were retired on 7/31/56 and number 602 on 6/1/57. There are no surviving Central Vermont "Mountains".
By 1929, the Grand Trunk Western Railroad (as it was known by then) was using these five 4-8-2s for fast freight as well as for the passenger trains that they originally bought them to lead.
There is one surviving GTW "Mountain", number 6039, at Steamtown National Historic Site in Scranton, PA.
|Class||Quantity||Road Numbers||Year Built||Builder|
|U-1-a||16||6000 - 6015||1923||CLC|
|U-1-b||21||6016 - 6036||1924-1925||CLC|
|U-1-d||5||6042 - 6046||1929-1930||CLC|
|U-1-e||12||6047 - 6058||1929-1930||MLW|
|U-1-f||20||6060 - 6079||1944||MLW|
These Mountains were owned by the CV's parent Canadian National Railway and leased to the Vermont railroad. The firebox heating surface included a combustion chamber, 14 sq ft (1.3 sq m) (in two arch tubes, and 76 sq ft (7.05 sq m) in Nicholson thermic syphons. They also mounted Coffin feedwater heaters.
Relatively small and light as North American 4-8-2s went, the U-1s were charged with moving The Montrealer over the CV's portion of the New York-Montreal express. Drury (1993) comments that they "were about the same size as the Florida East Coast 400 series ..." (See Locobase 1348). Indeed, a comparison of the specs shows them to have been virtually identical in every respect except for the CV engines having a higher boiler pressure.
Chris Hohl provided a builder's card for the U-1s that showed the original tender held 10,000 US gallons (37,850 litres) and 14 tons (12.7 metric tonnes) of coal; it weighed 191,500 lb (86,863 kg). The later tender shown in the specs carried 500 fewer gallons (1,893 litres), but four more tons (3.6 metric tonnes) of fuel.
Retirements came only in the late 1950s.
|Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media|
|Railroad||Central Vermont (CNR)|
|Number in Class||4|
|Locomotive Length and Weight|
|Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)||19.58 / 5.97|
|Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)||42.08 / 12.83|
|Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase||0.47|
|Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)||76.96 / 23.46|
|Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)|
|Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)||215,500 / 97,749|
|Engine Weight (lbs / kg)||326,100 / 147,917|
|Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)||200,060 / 90,746|
|Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)||526,160 / 238,663|
|Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)||9550 / 36.17|
|Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)||18|
|Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)||90 / 45|
|Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort|
|Driver Diameter (in / mm)||73 / 1854|
|Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)||210 / 14.50|
|High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)||26" x 28" / 660x711|
|Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)||46,283 / 20993.64|
|Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort)||4.66|
|Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)||384 / 35.69|
|Grate Area (sq ft / m2)||66.80 / 6.21|
|Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)||3856 / 358.36|
|Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)||968 / 89.96|
|Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)||4824 / 448.32|
|Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume||224.11|
|Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)|
|Robert LeMassena's Power Computation||14,028|
|Same as above plus superheater percentage||16,834|
|Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area||96,768|