When the L&N adopted Pacifics for its passenger traffic, the design still featured slide valves and a saturated-steam boiler. 20 sq ft of the firebox heating area took the form of arch tubes.
Both Alco's Rogers Works in Paterson, New Jersey delivered five (works numbers 6254-6258 in 1905) and the railroad's own shops delivered 25 K1s in 1905-1907.
Fifteen of the 25 were upgraded to the superheated K2-A modification; see Locobase 8128.
After sharing the building of their K1 light Pacifics (Locobase 8127) with Rogers, the L & N began building a superheated version based on that saturated-steam design. In the new engines, there was at least one unusual change. The original boiler had 291 2" tubes, the superheated vessel had 132 - a not-untypical reduction to make room for the 21 flues. But the tubes were new and measured 2 1/4" outside diameter. On the other hand, the firebox remained unchanged and still had 20 sq ft (1.85 sq m) of arch tubes contributing to its direct heating surface area. And, as usual, weight climbed as did maximum axle loading.
Satisfied with the result of this redesign, the L & N then upgraded K-1s 151-152, 154-155, 158, 160-168, and 172 to this standard. Although relatively small, the class served for a long time. Charles B Castner in Drury (1993) says they hauled passenger trains between Cincinnati and Atlanta and Cincinnati and New Orleans. As larger passenger engines took over these main-line tasks, the K2-As wound up in South Alabama and the Gulf Coast and eventually pulled locals on the Chattahoochee and Pensacola branches.
After the L & N's own shops finished the 20 Pacifics of the K2 class (Locobase 8129), they produced another 17 K3s at South Louisville in 1912-1913 to a slightly larger and heavier design.
Locobase isn't sure why the same 21-flue superheater layout, measuring the same length between tube sheets, would yield 84 fewer sq ft of superheater surface, especially when the railroad increased the number of fire tubes. He suspects that the superheater elements themselves were shortened for some reason. Calculations show a meager 12.7% of total heating surface area derived from superheating.
This class took on the same duties as did the K2s, but entered retirement beginning in 1940. The last one left service in 1951.
44 engines built by L&N as part of the K-series Pacifics. K3s (Locobase 8129) had identical dimensions except for their 21 1/2" cylinders. Charles B Castner in Drury (1993) says the K4-As had their own road-number range (2212-2215) for accounting reasons.
The K4 & K4-A engines had the same mysteriously limited superheater area found in the K3s.
K4-Bs had much more superheater area; see Locobase 6669.
Four K6 series (296-299) were built by Baldwin in 1913 (Locobase 2789) for the Gulf, Mobile, and Northern and purchased by the L & N in 1921.
These South Louisville locomotives were based on the earlier K-4 (Locobase 148), using the same firebox and grate (with 19.7 sq ft of arch tubes contributing to firebox heating surface). But the newer engines had almost doubled the superheater area and lengthened by the boiler by just shy of a foot and a half.
Delivered from Richmond, this class consisted of the reliable and well-liked USRA light Pacific design. As Charles B Castner in Drury (1993) points out, these were considerably larger than the homegrown 4-6-2s produced up until then. So satisfying was this design that the L & N went to Baldwin and Brooks to produce twenty more in 1923-1924. Baldwin's engines had 46 sq ft (4.25 sq m) direct heating surface area in the combustion chamber and 27 sq ft (2.5 sq m) in arch tubes. They also had 14" (356 mm) piston valves and, unusually for a Baldwin, Alco power reverse gear.
Chris Hohl's work on streamlined North American locomotives led him to send Locobase three photographs in April 2013 that show the extensive cosmetic changes made to the 275, 277, and 295. All bear some resemblance to the Canadian National 4-8-4s in the use of a full skyline casing running from a grille over the smokebox to the front of the cab that masked both the short stack and the sand and steam domes. The air pumps mounted below the smokebox on the "front porch" were shielded by white-painted covers. The headlight thrust forward from the center of the smokebox at the tip of a truncated cone.
The color photo of 295 reveals that the deep valence running from the pilot up the steps and along the side of the locomotive clear back to the back end of the tender was white with red piping. Both cab and the front half of the tender had rounded top edges.
Three-piston design very similar to those of the CRI&P and the Missouri Pacific. Shared the longer wheelbase of the MP #6000, the grate area with the Rock Island #999. Bruce's diagram shows that Like those locomotives, all three cylinders were line abreast and roughly equally spaced. But the two right-hand piston valves were closely spaced over the right-hand cylinder and linked together by a solid arm that pivoted around its center, thus actuating first the central valve, then the outside right valve.
As Richard E Prince noted in his Louisville & Nashville Locomotives (rev. ed; 1968), p. 109. , from a maintenance standpoint, this engine could not be considered "...a howling success."
Its firebox heating surface area included 27 sq ft (2.5 sq m) of arch tubes.
It was later stored during the Depression years, then rebuilt with a more conventional cylinder outfit of two 25" x 28" (635 x 711 mm) cylinders in 1940. The result was a locomotive that was apparently well suited to the L&N's express South Wind service.
An important addition was an enormous tender carrying 20,000 US gallons (75,700 litres) of water and 27 1/2 tons (24,948 kg) of coal. So equipped, the 295 covered the 205 miles (330 km) at 55 mph (89 km/h) between Nashville and Birmingham, Ala nonstop.
Known as the Henderson Route, this railway was begun as the Louisville, St Louis & Texas Railroad in 1888. The first train ran between Owensboro, Ky and Stephensport in 1888 and Evansville (Ind)-Louisville service began in 1889. Ultimately, the main line stretched 142 miles from Louisville to Henderson, Ky on the south bank of the Ohio River, then crossed on L & N metals to Evansville and on 166 miles through southern Illinois to St Louis.
These Pacifics were the last locomotives to be purchased by the L H & St L. Relatively small and light, their boilers featured a generous amount of superheat. The Louisville & Nashville acquired the class when it absorbed the railway in 1929. As K8s, the engines served the L & N until 1948.
|Specifications by Steve Llanso|
|Railroad||Louisville & Nashville (L & N)||Louisville & Nashville (L & N)||Louisville & Nashville (L & N)||Louisville & Nashville (L & N)||Louisville & Nashville (L & N)||Louisville & Nashville (L & N)||Louisville & Nashville (L & N)||Louisville, Henderson & St Louis (L & N)|
|Road Numbers||150-174||150-194||195-211||216-239+||246-263||240-45, 264-283||295||81-87|
|Builder||several||L&N||L & N||L & N||L & N||several||Alco-Brooks||Alco-Richmond|
|Valve Gear||Stephenson||Walschaert||Walschaert||Walschaert||Walschaert||Walschaert||Walschaert & Gresley||Walschaert|
|Locomotive Length and Weight|
|Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase||0.40||0.40||0.39||0.38||0.38||0.38||0.39||0.38|
|Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender)||61.58'||61.58'||62.79'||64.46'||66.04'||66.04'||71.46'||63.75'|
|Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle)||42000 lbs||46600 lbs||44500 lbs||51000 lbs||51000 lbs||54000 lbs||59100 lbs||44100 lbs|
|Weight on Drivers||115900 lbs||126400 lbs||131000 lbs||139000 lbs||139000 lbs||162000 lbs||177000 lbs||126500 lbs|
|Engine Weight||187800 lbs||201500 lbs||211500 lbs||233000 lbs||233000 lbs||277000 lbs||295000 lbs||210000 lbs|
|Tender Light Weight||143400 lbs||143400 lbs||143400 lbs||152700 lbs||179000 lbs||194000 lbs||194000 lbs||157800 lbs|
|Total Engine and Tender Weight||331200 lbs||344900 lbs||354900 lbs||385700 lbs||412000 lbs||471000 lbs||489000 lbs||367800 lbs|
|Tender Water Capacity||7000 gals||7000 gals||7000 gals||9000 gals||9000 gals||10000 gals||10000 gals||7000 gals|
|Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal)||15 tons||15 tons||15 tons||16 tons||16 tons||16 tons||16 tons||15 tons|
|Minimum weight of rail (calculated) on which locomotive could run||64 lb/yard||70 lb/yard||73 lb/yard||77 lb/yard||77 lb/yard||90 lb/yard||98 lb/yard||70 lb/yard|
|Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort|
|Boiler Pressure||200 psi||200 psi||200 psi||200 psi||200 psi||200 psi||190 psi||200 psi|
|Cylinders (dia x stroke)||20" x 28"||20.5" x 28"||21.5" x 28"||22" x 28"||22" x 28"||25" x 28"||22.5" x 28" (3)||22" x 26"|
|Tractive Effort||27594 lbs||28991 lbs||31889 lbs||33389 lbs||33389 lbs||40753 lbs||47040 lbs||31004 lbs|
|Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort)||4.20||4.36||4.11||4.16||4.16||3.98||3.76||4.08|
|Firebox Area||234 sq. ft||234 sq. ft||229.70 sq. ft||229.70 sq. ft||229.70 sq. ft||261 sq. ft||285 sq. ft||187 sq. ft|
|Grate Area||45 sq. ft||45 sq. ft||45 sq. ft||45 sq. ft||45 sq. ft||66.70 sq. ft||66.80 sq. ft||47 sq. ft|
|Evaporative Heating Surface||3039 sq. ft||2223 sq. ft||2445 sq. ft||2445 sq. ft||2562 sq. ft||3333 sq. ft||3435 sq. ft||1599 sq. ft|
|Superheating Surface||440 sq. ft||356 sq. ft||356 sq. ft||615 sq. ft||794 sq. ft||933 sq. ft||536 sq. ft|
|Combined Heating Surface||3039 sq. ft||2663 sq. ft||2801 sq. ft||2801 sq. ft||3177 sq. ft||4127 sq. ft||4368 sq. ft||2135 sq. ft|
|Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume||298.49||207.82||207.81||198.47||207.97||209.52||177.72||139.78|
|Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)|
|Robert LeMassena's Power Computation||9000||9000||9000||9000||9000||13340||12692||9400|
|Same as above plus superheater percentage||9000||10530||10170||10170||10710||15875||15357||11750|
|Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area||46800||54756||51912||51912||54669||62118||65522||46750|