Built in the same year as the Class I Mikados (Locobase 6095), these were identical locomotives except for the driver size. And like the 2-8-2s, they ran on 75 lb/yard (37.5 kg/metre) rail up 1% grades and around 6 degree curves. Indeed, the Pacific quintet were next in line to the first 3 Mikes on the builder's floor.
Renumbered by the Southern in 1916 and designated Ps-3, the five rendered satisfactory service for 30 more years. Four retired in June 1947 and the class leader was withdrawn in February 1948.
This class was the first Pacific series on the NO & NE. Most were later converted to the Ps-2 standard.
The P class was the standard Pacific in the Southern system in the first decade of the 20th Century and both Richmond and Baldwin were more than willing to add to the total.
In later years under the Southern numbering system, engines in the class used one of two power combinations. 6451-6452, 6455-6457, 6459 were fitted with 24" cylinders and had their boiler pressures reduced to 200 psi. The others retained their original setup. None was ever superheated.
One of surprising number of Pacifics that were delivered with saturated boilers. This design had a tiny firebox area recorded as 167 sq ft in the AGS book. The figure did not include arch tubes that added 28 sq ft to the firebox heating surface.
These were later superheated and some received 24" diameter cylinders.
Most built by Alco's Richmond Works (29819-29828 in 1904, 37610-37619 in 1905, some by Baldwin (works numbers were 23195, 23205, 23219, 23265, 23272 in November 1903; 24292-24294, 24301, 24319, 24324, 24357, 24368, 24378, 24421 in June 1904)
It's odd that saturated-steam, slide-valve engines were delivered as late as 1910. The design also has a small firebox for so large a boiler.
These early Pacifics were all converted to a Ps-2 standard (Locobase 166) when superheated using the Universal valve chest that adapted a piston valve to the slide-valve chest.
When the Southern first bought this combination of wheel arrangement and cylinder volume in 1906 (Locobase 11704), they took the first 10 with 63" drivers and operated them as freight engines. The other 5 had 72 1/2" drivers. Four years later the Southern went back to Baldwin for another 10, this time outfitted with outside radial valve gear.
This class was mostly converted to the Ps-2 standard later; see Locobase 166.
Continuing the long line of standard Southern Pacifics, this order repeated the relatively conservative formula of small cylinder volume, saturated boiler, and drivers scaled for passenger service.
This was a class of freight Pacifics, an unusual application for a wheel arrangement predominantly adopted for passenger service. The AERJ's 1906 report states that of the 20 delivered thus far (i.e., those supplied in January and February), 15 had 63" drivers, 5 had 72.5" drivers. The latter 5 were probably grouped with the P class; included among them was the 1200 in "exhibition finish" for its appearance at the 1907 Jamestown Tricentennial Exposition.
Most of the 63" engines remained essentially unchanged - they were not superheated and less than half were given 67" drivers later on. Many were equipped with Southern or Walschaert radial valve gear.
Locobase 166 shows the larger share of the Ps-2 class, those with Walschaert gear. But the last 5 of the 1913-14 Baldwin order (works# 41347-48, 41354-56, produced in April 1914) were fitted with Southern's own design of valve gear. Richmond added works #54692-54701 as 1350-1359.
Most built by Richmond, some by Baldwin. Ps-2 boiler pressure later increased to 195 psi, 36,872 lb TE. Most earlier Ps engines (22 x 28" cyls, 220 psi, 35,000 lb TE) converted to Ps-2 standard.
Alco's works # for 1251-1265 were 50197-50211 and Baldwin's 1266-1270 were works # 37741-37745. In 1912, Alco's Richmond supplied 1325-1334 (works# 52314-52323). 1913-14 saw Baldwin's 1335-1344 (works 40765-770, 40788-40791, and 41347-48, 41354-56).
At the same time, the Cincinnati, New Orleans, Texas & Pacific subsidiary bought 809-820 in 1911 and 1913., which were renumbered 6459-6471. The five that arrived in 1911 were works # 50212-50216; seven more -- 53271-53277 -- were delivered in 1913.
Firebox had combustion chamber, boiler had feedwater heater. Based on the USRA heavy Pacific but fitted with 73" drivers (vs 79") and a shorter boiler. Boiler pressure was later raised to 210 ps, but the railway's tractive effort value read 45,000 lb.
A later batch introduced the famous Virginia Green color in 1926; see Locobase 6085.
Steam distribution came through 11" piston valves with an outside lap of 1 1/4", full-gear lead of 1/4", and a total travel covering 7 1/2". The fire box had a brick arch and 28 sq ft of arch tubes.
Westcott (1960) says they could pull 14-car trains at 80 mph even with the 73" drivers. The Smithsonian's "America on the Move" website (http://americanhistory.si.edu/onthemove/collection/object_15.html, viewed 22 Sept 2004) gives the tonnage rating of the above train as 700-1000 tons on the level. (It adds: "The 'hill and dale' profile of the Charlotte Division, however, kept average speeds to about 50-60 mph.") The 150-mile run on the Charlotte Division consumed virtually all of the 14,000 gallons of water in the tender (although the train usually watered up along the way for safety's sake) and all 16 tons of coal.
|Specifications by Steve Llanso|
|Class||H / Ps-3||H-1 / Ps||H/H-2||H/H1||P||P||P||P-1||Ps-2 - Southern vg||Ps-2 - Walschaert vg||Ps-4||Ps-4|
|Railroad||New Orleans & North Eastern (SRS)||New Orleans & North Eastern (SRS)||Cincinnati, New Orleans & Texas Pacific (SRS)||Alabama Great Southern (SRS)||Southern (SRS)||Southern (SRS)||Georgia Southern & Florida (SRS)||Southern (SRS)||Southern (SRS)||Southern (SRS)||Southern (SRS)||Southern (SRS)|
|Road Numbers||295-299 / 6975-6979||6450-6453||800-808 / 6450-6458||248-256||1200-1225, 1236-1240||1241-1250, 1300-1324||500-505 / 1360-1365||1276-1299||1345-1359||1251-1270, 1325-1344||1366-1392||1393-1404, 6476-82, 6688-|
|Builder||Baldwin||Richmond||several||several||Several||Baldwin||Baldwin||Burnham, Williams & Co||Several||Several||Several||Alco-Richmond|
|Valve Gear||Walschaert||Walschaert||Walschaert||Alco-Richmond||Walschaert||Walschaert||Walschaert||Stephenson||Southern||Walschaert||Baker or Walschaert||Baker|
|Locomotive Length and Weight|
|Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase||0.36||0.40||0.40||0.53||0.40||0.40||0.40||0.40||0.40||0.40||0.36||0.36|
|Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender)||67'||64.29'||66.04'||64.29'||67.04'||63.04'||63.04'||64.49'||67.04'||67.04'||77.08'||77.08'|
|Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle)||48300 lbs||48300 lbs||48300 lbs||60000 lbs||60000 lbs|
|Weight on Drivers||130500 lbs||138460 lbs||134000 lbs||134000 lbs||133600 lbs||139000 lbs||139000 lbs||143460 lbs||141500 lbs||141500 lbs||180000 lbs||180000 lbs|
|Engine Weight||206700 lbs||232000 lbs||224300 lbs||219500 lbs||217575 lbs||221000 lbs||221000 lbs||216850 lbs||232000 lbs||232000 lbs||300000 lbs||304000 lbs|
|Tender Light Weight||154000 lbs||150000 lbs||150000 lbs||132340 lbs||147000 lbs||152000 lbs||152000 lbs||195600 lbs||261600 lbs|
|Total Engine and Tender Weight||360700 lbs||382000 lbs||369500 lbs||349915 lbs||363850 lbs||384000 lbs||384000 lbs||495600 lbs||565600 lbs|
|Tender Water Capacity||7500 gals||8000 gals||7500 gals||8000 gals||6000 gals||7500 gals||7500 gals||7500 gals||7500 gals||7500 gals||12000 gals||14000 gals|
|Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal)||14 tons||12.5 tons||12.5 tons||12.5 tons||12 tons||12.5 tons||12.5 tons||12.5 tons||12 tons||12 tons||16 tons||16 tons|
|Minimum weight of rail (calculated) on which locomotive could run||73 lb/yard||77 lb/yard||74 lb/yard||74 lb/yard||74 lb/yard||77 lb/yard||77 lb/yard||80 lb/yard||79 lb/yard||79 lb/yard||100 lb/yard||100 lb/yard|
|Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort|
|Boiler Pressure||200 psi||200 psi||220 psi||220 psi||220 psi||220 psi||220 psi||220 psi||195 psi||195 psi||200 psi||200 psi|
|Cylinders (dia x stroke)||22" x 28"||24" x 28"||22" x 28"||22" x 28"||22" x 28"||22" x 28"||22" x 28"||22" x 28"||24" x 28"||24" x 28"||27" x 28"||27" x 28"|
|Tractive Effort||33880 lbs||38080 lbs||35198 lbs||35198 lbs||35198 lbs||34955 lbs||34955 lbs||40226 lbs||36872 lbs||36872 lbs||47535 lbs||47535 lbs|
|Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort)||3.85||3.64||3.81||3.81||3.80||3.98||3.98||3.57||3.84||3.84||3.79||3.79|
|Firebox Area||200 sq. ft||167 sq. ft||223 sq. ft||195 sq. ft||185 sq. ft||195 sq. ft||195 sq. ft||195 sq. ft||185 sq. ft||185 sq. ft||314 sq. ft||290 sq. ft|
|Grate Area||46 sq. ft||54 sq. ft||54.25 sq. ft||54 sq. ft||54 sq. ft||54.25 sq. ft||54.25 sq. ft||54.25 sq. ft||54.30 sq. ft||54.30 sq. ft||70.40 sq. ft||70.50 sq. ft|
|Evaporative Heating Surface||2573 sq. ft||3033 sq. ft||3878 sq. ft||3867 sq. ft||3885 sq. ft||3878 sq. ft||3878 sq. ft||3879 sq. ft||3062 sq. ft||3062 sq. ft||3718 sq. ft||3689 sq. ft|
|Superheating Surface||546 sq. ft||806 sq. ft||806 sq. ft||860 sq. ft||905 sq. ft|
|Combined Heating Surface||3119 sq. ft||3033 sq. ft||3878 sq. ft||3867 sq. ft||3885 sq. ft||3878 sq. ft||3878 sq. ft||3879 sq. ft||3868 sq. ft||3868 sq. ft||4578 sq. ft||4594 sq. ft|
|Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume||208.86||206.88||314.80||313.90||315.36||314.80||314.80||314.88||208.86||208.86||200.38||198.81|
|Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)|
|Robert LeMassena's Power Computation||9200||10800||11935||11880||11880||11935||11935||11935||10589||10589||14080||14100|
|Same as above plus superheater percentage||10856||10800||11935||11880||11880||11935||11935||11935||12812||12812||16755||16920|
|Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area||47200||33400||49060||42900||40700||42900||42900||42900||43651||43651||74732||69600|