New Haven 2-10-2 "Santa Fe" Locomotives of the USA

Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class L-1 (Locobase 81)

Data from Alfred Bruce, The Steam Locomotive in America (New York: Bonanza Books, 1952), plate 56 between 276-277. Works numbers were 57891-57940 in March-June 1918.

Although counterbalancing problems (inherent in the Santa Fe wheel arrangement and driver size) limited speeds to 25 mph, these engines lasted through World War II because of their pulling power on the New Haven-Maybrook section.

Class L-1 - with 3 syphons (Locobase 8121)

Data from NH 1962 St Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

Locobase 81 lets us see the Santa Fes as they were when they were new. Locobase 8120 describes those retrofitted with security circulators.

By the time of the diagram, the New Haven had beefed up its Santa Fe's direct heating surface by adding 156 sq ft (14.5 sq m) of thermic syphons. And the diagram makes great claims for the potency of syphons as water evaporators. Each square foot of tube is credited with making 9.29 lb/hour steam per hour. The larger flues come in at 10.44 lb/hour. But the syphons perform at 55 lb/hour/sq ft, the same as the firebox as a whole.

As a result, maximum water evaporation reached 62,060 lb/hour; 23,100 lb/hour (37.2%) of the total came from direct heating surfaces. Steam consumption by those large cylinders was calculated at 67,500 lb/hour and boiler factor at that rate was 91.8%.

Class L-1 - with 4 circulators (Locobase 8120)

Data from NH 1962 St Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

Locobase 81 shows the original configuration of these low-drivered Santa Fes. The current entry details one of two upgrades applied to the class later in its career. "Security circulators" were T-shaped water tubes that extended into the firebox and added (in this case) 54 sq ft of heating surface to the firebox. Although quite different from the layout created by the installation of thermic syphons in locomotives described in Locobase 8121, the water evaporation rate wasn't that different. The maximum rate of 60,625 lb/hour included 18,535 lb/hour (30.6%) from direct heating surfaces, a lower percentage that that achieved by thermic syphons. In any case, the boiler could be overmatched by maximum steam consumption demands of 67,500 lb/hour, which yielded an 89.8% boiler factor.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassL-1L-1 - with 3 syphonsL-1 - with 4 circulators
Locobase ID81 8121 8120
RailroadNew Haven (NYNH&H)New Haven (NYNH&H)New Haven (NYNH&H)
Number in Class505050
Road Numbers3200-32493200-32493206-07, 3238, 3244-3245
Number Built50
Valve GearBakerBakerWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft)22.5022.5022.50
Engine Wheelbase (ft)40.6040.6040.60
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.55 0.55 0.55
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)74.7574.7374.73
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)62,12062,120
Weight on Drivers (lbs)296,000299,210299,210
Engine Weight (lbs)361,000360,735360,730
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)201,200202,000194,000
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)562,200562,735554,730
Tender Water Capacity (gals)11,00011,00010,000
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)161616
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)99100100
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)636363
Boiler Pressure (psi)200200200
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)30" x 32"30" x 32"30" x 32"
Tractive Effort (lbs)77,71477,71477,714
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 3.81 3.85 3.85
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)420337
Grate Area (sq ft)82.508282
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)472944434697
Superheating Surface (sq ft)115511151468
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)588455586165
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume180.63169.71179.41
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation16,50016,40016,400
Same as above plus superheater percentage19,80019,68020,336
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area100,80083,576
Power L113,29815,717
Power MT489.91579.02


If you have any railroad data such as diagram books, rail station plans or anything else that you would be willing to share, please contact us.