New York, Ontario & Western 2-10-2 "Santa Fe" Locomotives of the USA

The New York, Ontario & Western Railway was a regional railroad with origins in 1868, lasting until March 29, 1957 when it was ordered liquidated by a US bankruptcy judge. The O&W holds the distinction of being the first major U.S. railroad to be abandoned in its entirety. Its mainline ran from Weehawken, New Jersey in the greater New York City area to Oswego, New York, a port city on Lake Ontario. It had branch lines to Scranton, Pennsylvania; Kingston, New York; Port Jervis, New York; Delhi, New York; Utica, New York and Rome, New York. The part south of Cornwall, New York was operated over the New York Central Railroad's West Shore Railroad via trackage rights.

The New York, Ontario & Western Railway bought twelve "Santa Fe" locomotives from the American Locomotive Company, which were delivered in 1915. They were designated as Class X and given road numbers 351 through 362. These locomotives had 57" diameter drivers, 28" x 32" cylinders, a 190 psi boiler pressure, they exerted 71,083 pounds of tractive effort and each weighed 352,500 pounds.

There are no surviving NYO&W 2-10-2 "Santa Fe" type locomotives.

Roster by Richard Duley

Class.Qty.Road NumbersYear BuiltBuilderNotes
X12351-3621915ALCONumbers 351-362 were scrapped by the end of steam on the MP

Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class X (Locobase 5391)

Data from table in May 1916 RME. See also "New 2-10-2 Locomotives", Loco; a Technical Magazine, Volume 7, p. 16; "Recent Examples of 2-10-2 Type Locomotives", Railway Age Gazette, Volume 60, No 16 (21 April 1916), pp. 887-891; and NYO&W 2 - 1931 and NYO&W 1 - 1943 Locomotive Diagram books supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. Works numbers were 55267-55278 in October 1915.

Although described by Wes Barris in (visited 17 Feb 2003) as "hard to maintain and hard to run -- they required two firemen", these Santa Fes nevertheless carried on until the 1940s. Known as the Bullmoose, the design had relatively small and short tubes and flues for the period. Perhaps the narrowness and shortness of the boiler choked the immense firebox grate.

The Loco Magazine article goes into great detail about the lateral-motion assemblies and the hopes for improving the engine's ride. Success seems to have eluded the designers, however. In the February 2009 Mountaineer (, Mal Houck refers to the "...cramped and rough riding Class X "Bullmoose" 2-10-2Æs (and with ride quality not at all aided by the lesser unsprung weight and running dynamics of engines with small drivers) in his "Ontario & Western Ramblings No. 4".

Houck then notes the putative value of the trailing truck in freight designs: "Aside from supporting the fireboxes, bigger- and later-built locomotives with trailing trucks had an easier, if not softer (were such a thing possible in a machine of 200+ tons running steel on steel!) ride. Engines without trailer trucks rode hard due to the need for the suspension springing and qualization to be hard and stiff in order to provide support for the firebox."

Then Houck identifies the X-class's problem: "Although the "Bullmoose" 2-10-2 locomotives had their peculiar inside-bearing two-wheeled trailer truck, the firebox was really supported by the last driver set(s) with the similar hard spring support as with locomotives lacking a trailer truck. The Class X "Bullmooses" had radial stay trailing trucks that were intended, not for support of the firebox, but for added stability in backing (well-needed for the long rigid tencoupled wheelbase, and the "Bullmooses" were well known to be difficult and cantankerous tracking machines often prone to minor derailments; great care had to be exercised when negotiating crossovers and when turning then on the wyes at Poyntelle as they "cut off" from the pusher duties to which they so often assigned)."

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Locobase ID5391
RailroadNew York, Ontario & Western
Number in Class12
Road Numbers351-362
Number Built12
Valve GearBaker
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft)20
Engine Wheelbase (ft)36.75
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.54
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)66.83
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)61,000
Weight on Drivers (lbs)293,000
Engine Weight (lbs)352,500
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)168,700
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)521,200
Tender Water Capacity (gals)9000
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)15
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)98
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)57
Boiler Pressure (psi)190
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)28" x 32"
Tractive Effort (lbs)71,083
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.12
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)325
Grate Area (sq ft)100
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)4498
Superheating Surface (sq ft)1007
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)5505
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume197.23
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation19,000
Same as above plus superheater percentage22,420
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area72,865
Power L112,019
Power MT452.17



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