Texas & Pacific 2-10-2 "Santa Fe" Locomotives of the USA

The Texas & Pacific Railroad did not buy any "Mikado" type 2-8-2 locomotives instead bought forty-four "Santa Fe" type locomotives, all of which had 63" diameter drivers, 28" x 32" cylinders, a 185 psi boiler pressure and they exerted 62,620 pounds of tractive effort.

The first group of the "Santa Fes" arrived from the Baldwin Locomotive Works in 1916 and the T&P designated them as Class G-1 with road numbers 500 through 505 assigned. The locomotives weighed 328,500 pounds. Another eight came from Baldwin in 1917. These eight were very close copies of the ones delivered in 1916 and were given road numbers 506 through 513.

In 1919, thirty more were added to the roster. Twelve were built by Baldwin and each weighed 339,000 pounds. They were given road numbers 514 through 515. The other eighteen were built by the American Locomotive Company and were assigned road numbers 526 through 543. The ALCO-built locomotives each weighed 332,000 pounds.

There are no surviving T&P 2-10-2 "Santa Fe" type locomotives.

Roster by Richard Duley

ClassQty.Road NumbersYear BuiltBuilderNotes
G-1 6500-5051916BaldwinNumbers 500-505 scrapped by 1937.
G-1a 8506-5131917BaldwinNumbers 506-513 scrapped by 1937.
G-1b12514-5251919BaldwinNumbers 514-525 equipped with a trailing truck booster that added 11,800 pounds to the tractive effort. All scrapped by 1949
G-1c18526-5431919ALCONumbers 527, 529, 531, 534, 535 and 539 sold to the NdeM in 1941 and became NdeM numbers 3100-3105. NdeM numbers 3100-3105 scrapped between 1953 and 1959. All the others scrapped by 1949.

Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class G-1/G-1a (Locobase 5436)

Data from a table in January 1917 RME. See also DeGolyer, Volume 51, pp. 276+ and Volume 61, pp. 417+. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his 30 May 2016 email noting tender capacities and weights.)

Relatively small Santa Fe with high drivers that proved to be fast runners for the arrangement. They were equipped with a Gaines wall in the Jacobs-Shupert firebox and combustion chamber. (See Locobase 436 for a full description of the stayless Jacobs-Shupert design.) The class used 14" (356 mm) piston valves to admit steam to the cylinders. In the early 1920s, the railroad raised the working pressure in this class from 185 psi to 200 psi.

See the long letter from the T&P dated 29 October 1916 describing the Sheedy burner they wanted to be installed "to give the best heat requirement [sic] to the firebox". Among the stipulations were that the burner was to be located "so as to produce the maximum length of flame." On the other hand, the design had to ensure that the oil heater in the tender not heat the oil too much [i.e. achieve temperatures much above 120-130 degrees/49-54 deg C] as "hot fuel is extremely hard to hold and causes considerable loss of oil." It also carbonized and left deposits at the bottoi of the tender's cistern.

But in the specification, which is dated "Nov 1915", the oil burner is given as a Von Boden type "(on account of time)." The Von Boden was the Southern Pacific's usual option for oil-burning locomotives. The Sheedy burner (an inside type) mixed the oil with the steam in the burner while the Von Boden-Ingles burner had its oil mixed and atomized by the steam after it left the burner nozzle.

Apparently the 3 1/2" (89 mm) burner installed in the six G-1as was too small as the T&P specified the 4 1/2" (114 mm) size for the others. Also changed was the thickness of the fire brick flash wall at the back door sheet. "Only" (in the specification's words) 4 1/2" (114 mm) thick in the Gs, the flash wall fattened up to 11 1/2" (292 mm) in the G-1a. And the Gaines combustion chamber length increased from 27"(686 mm) to the 42 1/2" shown in the specifications above.

This sextet was followed by 38 quite similar engines over the next three years.

The Baldwin series ran as follows:

G-1 500-505 Baldwin March 1916 43060-43061, 43074-43075 in March,


G-1a 506-513 Baldwin 45332-45333 in March 1917; 45445-45447 in April;

45642 in May; 45758, 45791 in June.

G-1bs were ordered in June 1916 as coal burners, but changed to oil before delivery; see Locobase 16223.

Alco-Brooks's 18 locomotives had certain key detail differences and are described in Locobase 14675.

Class G-1b (Locobase 16223)

Data from DeGolyer, Volume 61, pp. 428+ and Anglo-Mexican Petroleum Products Co, Ltd, Mexican Fuel Oil (London: Anglo-Mexican, 1914), p. 36-37. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his 30 May 2016 email noting tender capacities and weights.) Works numbers were 51597-51598, 51638-51639 in March 1919; 51667-51670, 51695, 51746-51747 in April; 51797 in May.

These were ordered as coal burners in early 1917, a change from oil fuel perhaps dictated by a fear that oil would be in short supply once the US entered World War I in April 1917. The Baldwin specs included a general instruction:"Railway company is desirous as embodying in locomotive the best details of modern practice in the way of plain and substantial design, together with good service and economical operation, and invites suggestions from BLW with this end in view."

They were equipped with a Gaines wall and combustion chamber and the firebrick flash wall was 11 1/2" (292 mm) thick. Probably the biggest change consisted of replacing the stayless Jacobs-Shupert design installed in the first 14 with a more conventional firebox that had 600 American Flexible staybolts and several rows of Tate expansion stays.

With the delay came a switch back to oil fuel shown on p. 430 as Extra Order No. 2470 on 18 April 1919. The T&P specified the W M Best oil burner. Anglo-Mexican's description said that this outside-mixing design sprayed oil down into a horizontal stream of steam, converting the oil into a "mist of very fine particles." Anglo-Mexican added that the "opening of the burner can be shaped to throw either a long narrow flame or a fan-shaped blaze nine feet wide."

The class used 14" (356 mm) piston valves to admit steam to the cylinders. In the early 1920s, the railroad raised the working pressure in this class from 185 psi to 200 psi.

Alco-Brooks's 18 locomotives had certain key detail differences and are described in Locobase 14675.

Class G-1b - syphons (Locobase 16224)

Data from T&P 1950ca Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive raildata collection.

Locobase 16223 shows the original configuration of the 1919 G-1b. Like the Brooks G-1c, the twelve G-1bs received thermic syphons in the 1920s, which added 81 1/2 sq ft (7.57 sq m) to the firebox heating surface area. An Elesco Type K-40A feed water heater rested its characteristic cylindrical tank on the smoke box top ahead of the stack. The boiler held 16 fewer small tubes than the original.

Class G-1c (Locobase 14675)

Data from T&P - 1 - 1922 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley. Works numbers were 61398-61415 in December 1919.

When the Dunkirk, New York Alco subsidiary built the next batch of 2-10-2s for the T&P, it followed the general lines of the Baldwin's 1916 locomotives (Locobase 5436), but did make some changes. Most noticeably, the 14" (356 mm) diameter piston valves were now actuated by Walschaert's gear and the tender's capacities had nearly doubled.

Six of the engines from this class would be updated later on when the T&P installed thermic syphons in their fireboxes; see Locobase 8510.

Class G-1c- syphons (Locobase 8510)

Data from T&P 1 - 1950ca Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

The T&P thought enough of these Santa Fes to retain them for decades even after their acquisition of 2-10-4s to update a half-dozen of them with thermic syphons. The railway removed sixteen fire tubes totalling 151 sq ft (14.03 sq m) of heating surface as it installed three thermic syphons totalling 86 sq ft (7.99 sq m) of more efficient heating surface.

So while many of the G-1s were retired in the 1930s, this variant carried on into the war years.

At the end of their T&P careers, six G-1cs went to the Nacional de Mexico as their class SR-1. In T&P road number order, they were 527 (NdeM road number 3104), 529 (3105), 531 (3100), 534 (3102), 535 (3103), and 539 (3101).

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassG-1/G-1aG-1bG-1b - syphonsG-1cG-1c- syphons
Locobase ID5436 16,223 16,224 14,675 8510
RailroadTexas & Pacific (T&P)Texas & Pacific (T&P)Texas & Pacific (T&P)Texas & Pacific (T&P)Texas & Pacific (T&P)
Number in Class14129186
Road Numbers500-513514-525514-526526-543526-7, 532, 535-36
Number Built141218
BuilderBaldwinBaldwinT&PAlco-BrooksTexas & Pacific
Valve GearSouthernSouthernSouthernWalschaertWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft)21.8321.8321.8322.3322.33
Engine Wheelbase (ft)39.0839.0838.6739.5039.50
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.56 0.56 0.56 0.57 0.57
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)72.8172.8172.8177.3177.19
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)54,40053,40054,48558,20058,205
Weight on Drivers (lbs)265,400265,400264,545267,500267,500
Engine Weight (lbs)327,800327,800339,300332,000332,000
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)182,718182,718291,500228,400229,000
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)510,518510,518630,800560,400561,000
Tender Water Capacity (gals)9500940015,00012,00012,000
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)31003100500040004000
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)8888888989
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)6363636363
Boiler Pressure (psi)185185200185200
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)28" x 32"28" x 32"28" x 32"28" x 32"28" x 32"
Tractive Effort (lbs)62,62062,62067,69862,62067,698
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.24 4.24 3.91 4.27 3.95
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)319275356.50256342
Grate Area (sq ft)7070707070
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)38463811374237923727
Superheating Surface (sq ft)886886886882886
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)47324697462846744613
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume168.64167.11164.08166.27163.42
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation12,95012,95014,00012,95014,000
Same as above plus superheater percentage15,41115,41116,66015,41116,660
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area70,22860,54184,84756,35881,396
Power L111,42611,20912,43011,08112,349
Power MT474.57465.55517.94456.62508.88



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