This locomotive introduced the Vauclain four-cylinder balanced compounding system, which benefited considerably from Baldwin's experience with the de Glehn compounding system used in France. The de Glehn system featured four cylinders whose HP cylinders drove one axle and the LP drove another.

Vauclain's form of the four-cylinder compound had the two HP cylinders lying between the frames in line with the two outside, LP cylinders, all driving the lead axle. Crank positioning attempted to minimize hammerblow in two ways: The same-size cylinders were set 90 deg from each other, and each LP cylinder crank was 180 deg off from its LP partner.

One valve served both cylinders on a side as it did in the four.-cylinder Vauclain compound system so heavily promoted over the previous 15 years. In the balanced form, however, each cylinder had its own crosshead and crank. Thus, the advantages of compounding were preserved, but the wracking stresses imposed by improper adjustment of the Vauclain system could be avoided.

Another notable feature was the re-adoption of the crank axle inside. American builders had shied away from crank axles because they were prone to breakage. 20th Century metallurgy suggested that that issue had been solved.

Westing's reproduction of Paul Warner's history of Baldwin (1925; printed in Westing, 1966) only notes that production of this, the 20,000th Baldwin locomotive, was celebrated by a big dinner at the Union League. On the web, http://www.railroadextra.com/busa01.html (visited 4 Jan 2003) reproduces a Scientific American article from 7 June 1902, which shows the locomotive as Plant System 119. Connelly's Baldwin list identifies the Plant System component as the S F & W, which operated the engine only for a little while before selling it to the Chicago Short Line as #1. The CSL in turn sold it in 1905 to the Ashland & Western as their #1, but the A & W only operated it for three years before selling it in 1908 to to Southern Iron & Equipment, a locomotive rebuilder/reseller based in Atlanta that renumbered it 686.

Although Locobase isn't sure, it is likely that S I & E removed the corrugated firebox in favor of a more conventional furnace. Four years later, the S I & E sold the 686 to the Atlanta, Birmingham & Atlantic, which renumbered it 1. The AB & A renumbered the engine twice more (99, then 39) before scrapping it in 1920.

There's little to say about this small Ten-wheeler, according to the LE reporter, other than: "This engine was built for loads, as is plain from the boiler pressure and size of wheels and cylinders. Ideas of today in locomotive desing are apparent to the observer of the picture, making it unnecessary to particularize ...".

The C & WC was formed in 1896 when the South Carolina legislature forced the Central of Georgia (then in financial straits) to divest itself of the Port Royal & Augusta and the Port Royal and Western Carolina railways. Its rails radiated from Augusta, Georgia to such towns as Anderson, Greenville, and Spartanburg, SC.

In 1897, the C & WC was adopted as a subsidieary to the Atlantic Coast Line, but it was only actually merged in 1959. (See the history at http://railga.com/charlewc.html, last accessed 8 Feb 2009.)

The other Cumberland Construction locomotive order from Baldwin (Locobase 12399) delivered freight power. This engine was oriented toward mized-traffic service.

After some period of service in Tennessee, the 201 went to the Savannah, Florida & Western and shortly after that to the Alabama Midland as their 529. Through mergers, the engine arrived on the Atlantic Coast Line little more than 2 years after its production. Compared to the ACL's other 4-6-0s, this engine had a smaller boiler, but a relatively large firebox.

1286 was scrapped in February 1935.

This order shows just what an amalgamation of railroads made up the Atlantic Coast Line system. Six different lines took delivery under the single order. In order of builder's number, they were:

Road # Railroad ACL

231 Richmond & Petersburg 313

303 Florence Railroad 315

156-157 Wilmington & Weldon 316-317

267 Petersburg Railroad 312

77 Wilmington Columbia & Augusta 314

417-418 Norfolk & Carolina 319, 318

By 1900, however, all of the engines were grouped in Class K on the ACL.

315 went to the Rockingham Railroad as of January 1911. Much later in February 1935, the 312 was sold to the East Carolina.

This short line supported a sawmill in Milldale (North Jacksonville) and phosphate mining near Newberry FL. After its takeover in 1904 by the Atlantic Coast Line, the road was designated ACL's Ocala division.

Data from Railroad Gazette (2 November 1900), which describes the builder as the "International Power Company". The Rhode Island Works were shortly to be taken into the Alco combine.

These were the "Copper Head" classes of ACL Ten-Wheelers, so called because of a copper flange that circled the top of the stack. They had a trim, functional look.

They had essentially four basic sets of specifications:

19" x 26" cylinders 64" drivers 23,061 lb TE

19" x 26" cylinders 69" drivers 21,390 lb TE

20" x 26" cylinders 69" drivers 23,701 lb TE

and the set listed in this entry. Weights ranged from 140,000 lb to 160,000 lb over the long life of this class. The last groups had Walschaerts valve gear and piston valves; others were modified with a bolt-on piston valve adapter to the slide valve chest called a "Modern" valve. Many were later superheated.

The class grew as follows:

K Richmond 6 1900 322-327

K 24 1901-1903 328-351

K-4 11 1903 212-222

K-5 12 1907 233-244

K-5 96 1906-1907 910-1005

K-6 10 1905 223-232

K-6 Baldwin 49 1904-1906 351-399

K-6 10 1906 901-909

K-14 10 1910 245-254

K-14 6 1910 1006-1011

K-15 34 1912-1913 1012-1044

These engines served throughout the rest of the steam era, the earlier classes being retired in the 1930s while some of the later engines carried on into the 1950s.

This entry relates to K-5, K-6, and K-14 locomotives that were upgraded with superheaters. When the ACL superheated K-series locomotives, some changes were common to all of the upgraded engines, others varied from locomotive to locomotive. All grates retained the 25.52 sq ft of firebrick tubes that contributed to firebox heating surface and all of the boilers lost 11" of tube length.

Given that truncation, it's even more unusual for the ACL to have gained back nearly all of the heating surface in the 27 large-diameter flues carrying superheater elements. As did many railroads, the ACL considered the added heating area supplied by superheaters to be more than equivalent to a similar amount of saturated area. So they calculated "equivalent heating surface" by multiplying the superheater area by 1.5. Thus the K upgrades contained 2,544 sq ft of equivalent heating surface. The superheated engines also gained "modern" steam chests, in which a piston valve was mounted in the slide valve's casing.

Most rebuilds retained the Stephenson link motion; a few mounted Baker radial valve gear and others operated Walschaert valve gear.

Similar in most respects to the K-5s that started arriving on the ACL in 1906, this group of locomotives featured two major changes: the adoption of outside radial valve gear instead of the inside Stephenson link and the use of 68" drivers. The class retained their slide valves, however. The firebox heating surface area included 30.1 sq ft (2.8 sq m) of arch tubes.

All of this class was superheated; see Locobase 7356.

Similar in most respects to the K-5s that started arriving on the ACL in 1906, this group of locomotives featured two major changes: the adoption of outside radial valve gear instead of the inside Stephenson link and the use of 68" drivers. The class retained their slide valves, however. The firebox heating surface area included 30.1 sq ft of arch tubes.

All of this class was superheated; see Locobase 7356.

Almost the very last of the K series, these engines had the same power dimensions and grate area as earlier locomotives, although the firebox heating surface increased, in part because of a small change in firebrick tube area (to 29 sq ft/2.69 sq m).

But the design was updated as well. They were delivered with 12" (305 mm) piston valves and Walschaert valve gear. The other difference between this class and the superheated Ks of earlier years was the full-length boiler tubes common to the saturated variant, a few more small tubes and three fewer flues. They later received thicker tires,which increased driver diameter to 64" (1,626 mm).

The ACL apparently wrung every mile out of its Ten-wheelers as the first of these (1022) was scrapped in November 1947 and the last two (1021, 1031) in November 1955.

An odd singleton. Delivered several years after the last of the K-15-S, this was an enlarged Ten-wheeler. Its cylinder volume had grown and the boiler, grate, and firebox all grew with it (although firebox heating surface still only included 24 sq ft /2.2 sq m of firebrick tubes). Piston valves measure 12" (306 mm) in diameter. 1045's adhesion weight outstripped any previous ACL 4-6-0 by more than 11 tons and the engine now had Ragonnet power reverse gear.

Soldiering on for several more decades, the 1045 was scrapped in June 1952.

Adiscussion of the entire K series resides on Locobase 2122. The number of subclasses is bewildering. The present entry focuses on this small group that were never superheated.

1906

November 29621-29622

December 29639-29641, 29684-29686, 29700-29705, 29741-29746, 29775-29778, 29832, 29852-29853

1907

February 30042-30045, 30083-30084, 30102-30104, 30130-30133, 30182-30186, 30240, 30309

March 30373

April 30648-30651, 30707-30709, 30720, 30742, 30748-30750

May 30788-30789, 30797-30799, 30844, 30854-30855

June 30984-30987, 31083

July 31286, 31316, 31340, 31353-31354, 31364, 31387, 31405-31407, 31442

August 31452, 31467-31470, 31485-31489, 31527-31534, 31564-31566, 31591, 31609

September 31646

Adiscussion of the entire K series resides on Locobase 2122. This entry focuses on one of the larger and most numerous single sub-classes. It was a true mixed-traffic locomotive, big enough to pull freight trains while able to work the branch line passenger service that didn't require high speeds. Many of the Copper Heads (the nickname for the whole K series because of the decorative brass ring around the top of the stack) were superheated; see Locobase 7677.

Two more -- works numbers 31188-31189 in July 1907 -- were delivered to the Charleston & Western Carolina.

This batch of Ten-wheelers did not precisely fit the mold of the large K series delivered to the ACL over several years. The drivers were smaller than most of the other engines and the cylinder diameter was specified to the half-inch. Most were scrapped in the late 1930s-early 1940s, but a few survived until the early 1950s. 354 began a second career in April 1941 when she was sold to the US Army's Transportation Corps and numbered 7533 (later 6923).

Before the Savannah, Florida, & Western Railroad was taken over by the Atlantic Coast Line, it had achieved separate fame as the operator of some very fast locomotives. Although the claimed 120-mph top speed of this relatively low-drivered Ten-wheeler is highly unlikely, an overall trip speed (115.9 miles in 90 minutes) of 77.3 mph is possible. See RG 22 March 1901 for an account of a 120-mph run.

The class came over to the ACL in 1902; they were retired between 1934 and 1942.

Locobase 2807 shows the Rhode Island-built Ten-wheelers that were supplied to the Plant System and later operated for the Atlantic Coast Line. This entry shows the Baldwin produced to the same set of specifications.

Like the Rhodies (or International Power Corporation as these works were temporarily titled), the 275 was never superheated. It was scrapped by the ACL in May 1934.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Class | 119 | 200 | 201 / K-8 | 231 / K | 27 |

Locobase ID | 5304 | 9944 | 12400 | 12285 | 12482 |

Railroad | Savannah, Florida & Western (ACL) | Chicago & Western Carolina (ACL) | Cumberland Construction (ACL) | Atlantic Coast Line (ACL) | Jacksonville & Southwestern (ACL) |

Country | USA | USA | USA | USA | USA |

Whyte | 4-6-0 | 4-6-0 | 4-6-0 | 4-6-0 | 4-6-0 |

Number in Class | 1 | 9 | 1 | 8 | 1 |

Road Numbers | 200-208 | 201 / 529 / 286 / 1286 | 231+ / 312-319 | 27 | |

Gauge | Std | Std | Std | Std | Std |

Number Built | 1 | 9 | 1 | 8 | 1 |

Builder | Burnham, Williams & Co | Richmond | Burnham, Williams & Co | Burnham, Williams & Co | Burnham, Williams & Co |

Year | 1902 | 1896 | 1900 | 1898 | 1901 |

Valve Gear | Walschaert | Stephenson | Stephenson | Stephenson | Stephenson |

Locomotive Length and Weight | |||||

Driver Wheelbase | 14.08' | 14' | 13.50' | 13.50' | |

Engine Wheelbase | 28.33' | 19.25' | 25' | 24.25' | 21.67' |

Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase | 0.50 | 0.56 | 0.56 | 0.62 | |

Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) | 56' | 19.25' | |||

Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) | |||||

Weight on Drivers | 127010 lbs | 112000 lbs | 102000 lbs | 80000 lbs | |

Engine Weight | 176510 lbs | 140000 lbs | 140000 lbs | 113000 lbs | |

Tender Light Weight | 99000 lbs | 90000 lbs | 75000 lbs | ||

Total Engine and Tender Weight | 275510 lbs | 230000 lbs | 188000 lbs | ||

Tender Water Capacity | 5000 gals | 3500 gals | 4000 gals | 4000 gals | 4000 gals |

Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) | 9.5 tons | tons | tons | tons | tons |

Minimum weight of rail (calculated) | 71 lb/yard | 0 | 62 lb/yard | 57 lb/yard | 44 lb/yard |

Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort | |||||

Driver Diameter | 73" | 56" | 64" | 63" | 56" |

Boiler Pressure | 200 psi | 180 psi | 180 psi | 160 psi | 180 psi |

High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) | 15" x 26" | 18" x 24" | 20" x 26" | 19" x 26" | 18" x 24" |

Low Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) | 25" x 26" (2) | ||||

Tractive Effort | 20034 lbs | 21245 lbs | 24863 lbs | 20262 lbs | 21245 lbs |

Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) | 6.34 | 4.50 | 5.03 | 3.77 | |

Heating Ability | |||||

Firebox Area | 128 sq. ft | 163 sq. ft | 187.50 sq. ft | 153 sq. ft | 134.60 sq. ft |

Grate Area | 27.25 sq. ft | 22.60 sq. ft | 27.50 sq. ft | 28 sq. ft | 17.10 sq. ft |

Evaporative Heating Surface | 2793 sq. ft | 1619 sq. ft | 2124 sq. ft | 2327 sq. ft | 1471 sq. ft |

Superheating Surface | |||||

Combined Heating Surface | 2793 sq. ft | 1619 sq. ft | 2124 sq. ft | 2327 sq. ft | 1471 sq. ft |

Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume | 525.22 | 229.04 | 224.67 | 272.73 | 208.10 |

Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information) | |||||

Robert LeMassena's Power Computation | 5450 | 4068 | 4950 | 4480 | 3078 |

Same as above plus superheater percentage | 5450 | 4068 | 4950 | 4480 | 3078 |

Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area | 25600 | 29340 | 33750 | 24480 | 24228 |

Power L1 | 5655 | 5785 | 6218 | 6088 | 5096 |

Power MT | 294.48 | 367.19 | 394.76 | 421.30 |

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Class | K | K series | K series - superheated | K-14 - 63"" | K-14 - 68"" |

Locobase ID | 3927 | 2122 | 7356 | 16027 | 13678 |

Railroad | Plant System (ACL) | Atlantic Coast Line (ACL) | Atlantic Coast Line (ACL) | Atlantic Coast Line (ACL) | Atlantic Coast Line (ACL) |

Country | USA | USA | USA | USA | USA |

Whyte | 4-6-0 | 4-6-0 | 4-6-0 | 4-6-0 | 4-6-0 |

Number in Class | 6 | 267 | 100 | 6 | 10 |

Road Numbers | 322-351+ | 1006-1011 | 245-254 | ||

Gauge | Std | Std | Std | Std | Std |

Number Built | 6 | 267 | 6 | 10 | |

Builder | Rhode Island | several | ACL | Baldwin | Baldwin |

Year | 1900 | 1900 | 1910 | 1910 | 1910 |

Valve Gear | Stephenson | Stephenson | Walschaert | Walschaert | Walschaert |

Locomotive Length and Weight | |||||

Driver Wheelbase | 14.50' | 13.50' | 13.50' | 13.50' | 13.50' |

Engine Wheelbase | 25.17' | 24.33' | 24.33' | 24.33' | 24.33' |

Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase | 0.58 | 0.55 | 0.55 | 0.55 | 0.55 |

Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) | 53.67' | 51.10' | 55.83' | 54.54' | 54.54' |

Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) | 36175 lbs | 45475 lbs | 40750 lbs | 40750 lbs | |

Weight on Drivers | 111000 lbs | 100380 lbs | 133890 lbs | 120550 lbs | 120550 lbs |

Engine Weight | 150000 lbs | 133180 lbs | 179940 lbs | 153800 lbs | 153800 lbs |

Tender Light Weight | 100000 lbs | 92000 lbs | 120000 lbs | 120000 lbs | 120000 lbs |

Total Engine and Tender Weight | 250000 lbs | 225180 lbs | 299940 lbs | 273800 lbs | 273800 lbs |

Tender Water Capacity | 5000 gals | 5000 gals | 6000 gals | 6000 gals | 6000 gals |

Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) | 9.5 tons | 6 tons | 15.5 tons | 12.5 tons | 12.5 tons |

Minimum weight of rail (calculated) | 62 lb/yard | 56 lb/yard | 74 lb/yard | 67 lb/yard | 67 lb/yard |

Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort | |||||

Driver Diameter | 65" | 64" | 69" | 68" | 68" |

Boiler Pressure | 200 psi | 185 psi | 200 psi | 185 psi | 185 psi |

Cylinders (dia x stroke) | 20" x 28" | 20" x 26" | 20" x 26" | 20" x 26" | 20" x 26" |

Tractive Effort | 29292 lbs | 25553 lbs | 25623 lbs | 24050 lbs | 24050 lbs |

Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) | 3.79 | 3.93 | 5.23 | 5.01 | 5.01 |

Heating Ability | |||||

Firebox Area | 184 sq. ft | 153 sq. ft | 162 sq. ft | 151 sq. ft | 190 sq. ft |

Grate Area | 33 sq. ft | 28 sq. ft | 44.10 sq. ft | 44.10 sq. ft | 44.10 sq. ft |

Evaporative Heating Surface | 2530 sq. ft | 2327 sq. ft | 1906 sq. ft | 2657 sq. ft | 2701 sq. ft |

Superheating Surface | 426 sq. ft | ||||

Combined Heating Surface | 2530 sq. ft | 2327 sq. ft | 2332 sq. ft | 2657 sq. ft | 2701 sq. ft |

Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume | 248.50 | 246.14 | 201.61 | 281.05 | 285.70 |

Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information) | |||||

Robert LeMassena's Power Computation | 6600 | 5180 | 8820 | 8159 | 8159 |

Same as above plus superheater percentage | 6600 | 5180 | 10408 | 8159 | 8159 |

Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area | 36800 | 28305 | 38232 | 27935 | 35150 |

Power L1 | 7342 | 6454 | 15935 | 7567 | 8097 |

Power MT | 437.47 | 425.24 | 787.15 | 415.16 | 444.23 |

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Class | K-15-S | K-16-S | K-4 | K-5 | K-6 |

Locobase ID | 7677 | 7678 | 7357 | 7676 | 12757 |

Railroad | Atlantic Coast Line (ACL) | Atlantic Coast Line (ACL) | Atlantic Coast Line (ACL) | Atlantic Coast Line (ACL) | Atlantic Coast Line (ACL) |

Country | USA | USA | USA | USA | USA |

Whyte | 4-6-0 | 4-6-0 | 4-6-0 | 4-6-0 | 4-6-0 |

Number in Class | 34 | 1 | 11 | 110 | 14 |

Road Numbers | 1012-1044 | 1045 | 212-222 | 910-1005, 233-244 | 296-299, 366-375 |

Gauge | Std | Std | Std | Std | Std |

Number Built | 34 | 1 | 11 | 110 | 14 |

Builder | Baldwin | Baldwin | Burnham, Williams & Co | Burnham, Williams & Co | Burnham, Williams & Co |

Year | 1913 | 1922 | 1903 | 1906 | 1904 |

Valve Gear | Walschaert | Walschaert | Stephenson | Stephenson | Stephenson |

Locomotive Length and Weight | |||||

Driver Wheelbase | 13.50' | 15' | 13.50' | 13.50' | 13.50' |

Engine Wheelbase | 24.33' | 26.33' | 24.33' | 24.33' | 24.33' |

Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase | 0.55 | 0.57 | 0.55 | 0.55 | 0.55 |

Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) | 55.90' | 60.78' | 51.31' | 54.54' | |

Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) | 52170 lbs | 39850 lbs | |||

Weight on Drivers | 127800 lbs | 155140 lbs | 111000 lbs | 116750 lbs | 115000 lbs |

Engine Weight | 173200 lbs | 207300 lbs | 147830 lbs | 153800 lbs | 155000 lbs |

Tender Light Weight | 120000 lbs | 160600 lbs | 92000 lbs | 120000 lbs | |

Total Engine and Tender Weight | 293200 lbs | 367900 lbs | 239830 lbs | 273800 lbs | |

Tender Water Capacity | 6000 gals | 8000 gals | 5000 gals | 6000 gals | 5500 gals |

Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) | 12.5 tons | 12 tons | tons | 12.5 tons | tons |

Minimum weight of rail (calculated) | 71 lb/yard | 86 lb/yard | 62 lb/yard | 65 lb/yard | 64 lb/yard |

Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort | |||||

Driver Diameter | 63" | 64" | 69" | 64" | 68" |

Boiler Pressure | 185 psi | 200 psi | 185 psi | 185 psi | 200 psi |

Cylinders (dia x stroke) | 20" x 26" | 23" x 26" | 19" x 26" | 20" x 26" | 20" x 26" |

Tractive Effort | 25959 lbs | 36534 lbs | 21391 lbs | 25553 lbs | 26000 lbs |

Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) | 4.92 | 4.25 | 5.19 | 4.57 | 4.42 |

Heating Ability | |||||

Firebox Area | 181 sq. ft | 200 sq. ft | 158 sq. ft | 156.30 sq. ft | 151 sq. ft |

Grate Area | 44.10 sq. ft | 53.30 sq. ft | 27.83 sq. ft | 44.10 sq. ft | 44.10 sq. ft |

Evaporative Heating Surface | 2038 sq. ft | 2497 sq. ft | 2346 sq. ft | 2680 sq. ft | 2675 sq. ft |

Superheating Surface | 400 sq. ft | 597 sq. ft | |||

Combined Heating Surface | 2438 sq. ft | 3094 sq. ft | 2346 sq. ft | 2680 sq. ft | 2675 sq. ft |

Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume | 215.57 | 199.72 | 274.96 | 283.48 | 282.95 |

Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information) | |||||

Robert LeMassena's Power Computation | 8159 | 10660 | 5149 | 8159 | 8820 |

Same as above plus superheater percentage | 9464 | 12685 | 5149 | 8159 | 8820 |

Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area | 38843 | 47600 | 29230 | 28916 | 30200 |

Power L1 | 13444 | 15135 | 7820 | 7225 | 8224 |

Power MT | 695.75 | 645.23 | 465.95 | 409.29 | 472.98 |

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|

Class | K-6 | K-9 | K-9 | unknown |

Locobase ID | 12758 | 2807 | 12594 | 5704 |

Railroad | Atlantic Coast Line (ACL) | Plant System (ACL) | Georgia, Florida & Western (ACL) | Plant System (ACL) |

Country | USA | USA | USA | USA |

Whyte | 4-6-0 | 4-6-0 | 4-6-0 | 4-6-0 |

Number in Class | 14 | 5 | 2 | |

Road Numbers | 352-365 | 110-114 / 270-275 | 118 / 275 / 211 | 100 |

Gauge | Std | Std | Std | Std |

Number Built | 14 | 5 | 1 | |

Builder | Burnham, Williams & Co | Rhode Island | Burnham, Williams & Co | Rogers |

Year | 1904 | 1900 | 1902 | 1893 |

Valve Gear | Stephenson | Stephenson | Stephenson | Stephenson |

Locomotive Length and Weight | ||||

Driver Wheelbase | 13.50' | 14.50' | 14.50' | 13.50' |

Engine Wheelbase | 24.33' | 25.17' | 25.17' | 24.67' |

Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase | 0.55 | 0.58 | 0.58 | 0.55 |

Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) | 53.67' | 52.17' | ||

Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) | ||||

Weight on Drivers | 115000 lbs | 108000 lbs | 106000 lbs | 98500 lbs |

Engine Weight | 155000 lbs | 146000 lbs | 143000 lbs | 138000 lbs |

Tender Light Weight | 120000 lbs | 100000 lbs | 80000 lbs | |

Total Engine and Tender Weight | 275000 lbs | 246000 lbs | 218000 lbs | |

Tender Water Capacity | 5500 gals | 5000 gals | 5000 gals | 3500 gals |

Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) | 9.5 tons | 9.5 tons | 7 tons | |

Minimum weight of rail (calculated) | 64 lb/yard | 60 lb/yard | 59 lb/yard | 55 lb/yard |

Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort | ||||

Driver Diameter | 63" | 72" | 72" | 72.50" |

Boiler Pressure | 200 psi | 200 psi | 200 psi | 170 psi |

Cylinders (dia x stroke) | 19.5" x 26" | 19" x 28" | 19" x 28" | 19" x 24" |

Tractive Effort | 26678 lbs | 23866 lbs | 23866 lbs | 17268 lbs |

Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) | 4.31 | 4.53 | 4.44 | 5.70 |

Heating Ability | ||||

Firebox Area | 151 sq. ft | 179.80 sq. ft | 158.30 sq. ft | 153 sq. ft |

Grate Area | 44.10 sq. ft | 33 sq. ft | 32.22 sq. ft | 31.38 sq. ft |

Evaporative Heating Surface | 2675 sq. ft | 2313 sq. ft | 2279 sq. ft | 1968 sq. ft |

Superheating Surface | ||||

Combined Heating Surface | 2675 sq. ft | 2313 sq. ft | 2279 sq. ft | 1968 sq. ft |

Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume | 297.65 | 251.73 | 248.03 | 249.88 |

Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information) | ||||

Robert LeMassena's Power Computation | 8820 | 6600 | 6444 | 5335 |

Same as above plus superheater percentage | 8820 | 6600 | 6444 | 5335 |

Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area | 30200 | 35960 | 31660 | 26010 |

Power L1 | 8015 | 8390 | 8020 | 7128 |

Power MT | 460.96 | 513.80 | 500.41 | 478.62 |

- Atlantic Coast Line & Seaboard Air Line Railroads Historical Society
- The Atlantic Coast Line Network
- The Seaboard Air Line Network
*Seaboard, The Route of Courteous Service*by William E. Griffin, Jr.*Through the Heart of the South, the Seaboard Air Line Railroad Story*by Robert Wayne Johnson, Published by Boston Mills Trees*Seaboard Air Line Railway Steam Boats, Locomotives and History*by Richard E. Prince, Published by Indiana University Press

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