Chesapeake & Ohio / Cincinnati Richmond & Muncie / Hocking Valley 4-6-0 "Ten-wheeler" Locomotives of the USA


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class 144 / F-2 (Locobase 12369)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Vol 22, p. 177. Works numbers were 17132-17133 in October 1899 and 18752 in March 1901.

146, which was produced 17 months after the other pair of Ten-wheelers, had a slightly larger firebox (198 vs 191.5 sq ft). The three were among the biggest of their arrangement to come into service during this period. Their 72" drivers marked them as pure passenger engines on the Chessie's hilly profile.

They were never superheated and went to the scrapyard in the late 1920s.


Class F-10 - compound (Locobase 10741)

Data from Angus Sinclair & John A Hill, "Richmond Compound Locomotive," Railway Engineering, Volume V (May 1895), pp. 265-266. Works number was 2427.

This was a trial engine, a one-off two-cylinder compound that was tested against several other simple-expansion locomotives. Not surprisingly, given that the locomotive is mentioned at all, the reviews were very favorable: "The engine has been doing remarkably good service, and is highly popular with all the people who have anything to do with the handling of her."

One of the writers (presumably Sinclair) wrote of a recent trip and his impression of the smoothness of the engine. Had he not known it was a compound, he wouldn't have suspected, he reported: "She ran as freely as a simple engine; there was an entire absence of pounding and jarring; and working heavy or light, she performed her duties very satisfactorily."

The railroad reported significant coal and water savings as well. Like most North American railroads, however, the Chessie did not pursue two-cylinder compounds very far.


Class F-11 (Locobase 7856)

Data from C&O 9-1936 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. Works numbers were 20391, 20418, 20479-20480, 20502 in May 1902; 21329-21331 in November 1902; 21493, 21501 in January 1903; and 24113, 24136, 24159 in April 1904.

Other than having a relatively large firebox heating surface, these Ten-wheelers were of about average size for a US mixed-traffic 4-6-0 of the turn of the century. Their cylinder volume was on the small side, which meant it was likely that the boiler provided more than ample steam on starting. The smallish grate probably limited the ability of the design to run at even moderate speeds for long periods.

The CR & M soon was reorganized as the Chicago Cincinnati & Louisville (1903); the CC & L was taken over in 1910 by the Chesapeake & Ohio.


Class F-9 (Locobase 5420)

Data from table in the July 1890 issue of RREJ. See also brief note in Engineering News, Volume 23 (24 May 1890), p. 504. Works numbers were 4199 in October 1889; 4289, 4291 in April 1890, and 4527 in April 1891 (given road numbers 129, 127, 128, 126, respectively.)

The RREJ article noted that these were passenger Ten-wheelers intended for heavy grades. The "vestibule" train for which it was expressly designed had nine cars and was to be moved over the section at an average of 32 mph. This was a large 4-6-0 for its time as far as heating surface area goes. The EN report stated that the design came from Mr William Garstang, the road's Superintendent of Motive Power. The locomotives were "of the same class and design as the large one received in November last for pulling the F. F. V. Limited train over the mountain portion of the road. This has proved a success, being able to pull not only 10 of the heavy coaches and sleepers, but at the same time to supply steam for running the electric light engine in the baggage car and for heating the cars."

As usual with Railroad Journal assessments, the new design was reported to be fulfilling expectations just fine.

All of the class served the C&O for about 35 years before being scrapped in 1924.


Class T-1 / F-12 (Locobase 6461)

See the article " Hocking Valley/C&O Ten-Wheelers" by Thomas W Dixon, Jr. in the Chesapeake & Ohio Historical Magazine (June 2004), accessed on http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3943/is_200406/ai_n9410620 . See also "Heavy Power for the Hocking Valley Ry," Railway Master Mechanic, Vol 34 (December 1910), pp. 519-520.

The heating surface data comes from the RMM article; Dixon's article shows significantly higher values for the firebox.

Dixon explains that the HV needed more powerful passenger engines for their main line between Toledo and Columbus, Ohio. Although more and more railroads had adopted some form of superheating, especially for passenger locomotives, the HV's GJ De Vilbiss specified slide valves and saturated steam.

Dixon comments that, although these were relatively modestly proportioned machines, their appearance "...was excellent, a small, neat, compact, well-proportioned locomotive." He explains that the high factor of adhesion helped the trio keep a schedule that called for 9 regular and 6 flag stops in a 122-mile run that was booked for 3 hours 50 minutes. This timing included sections of 60-mph running.

In later years, the T-1s were modified with 8" piston valves and Baker valve gear. When the HV merged with the Chesapeake & Ohio in 1930, the T-1s became F-12s; within 5 years all three had been scrapped. See Locobase 6462 for the superheated T-2s that entered service two years after the T-1s.


Class T-2 / F-13 (Locobase 6462)

See the article " Hocking Valley/C&O Ten-Wheelers" by Thomas W Dixon, Jr. in the Chesapeake & Ohio Historical Magazine (June 2004).

This quartet, which were essentially superheated T-1s (Locobase 6461), was assembled from two batches: 89-90 (works # 51732-51733) came from Brooks in 1912, while 91-92 (works # 54304-305) came from Richmond. They weighed about a ton more. Dixon doesn't comment on the difference in the firebox heating surface, which is considerable. It's possible that T-1s had arch tubes that were deleted from the T-2s to simplify maintenance.

When the HV merged with the C&O in 1930, 92 was almost immediately scrapped. The other 3 survived on their original turf until the late 40s when age and shrinking passenger-train demand rendered them surplus.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Class144 / F-2F-10 - compoundF-11F-9T-1 / F-12
Locobase ID12,369 10,741 7856 5420 6461
RailroadChesapeake & Ohio (C&O)Chesapeake & Ohio (C&O)Cincinnati Richmond & Muncie (C&O)Chesapeake & Ohio (C&O)Hocking Valley (C&O)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-0
Number in Class311343
Road Numbers144-146 / 395-397140103-115 / 1103-1115 / 372-384126-12986-88
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built311343
BuilderBurnham, Williams & CoRichmondBurnham, Williams & CoRogersAlco-Brooks
Year18991892190218891910
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft)14.2512.5014.0814.33
Engine Wheelbase (ft)26.5423.5424.2526.08
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.54 0.53 0.58 0.55
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)49.4654.5856.56
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)
Weight on Drivers (lbs)120,000115,000115,000102,800142,000
Engine Weight (lbs)160,000143,000143,500137,200188,650
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)112,000136,31072,000143,900
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)272,000279,810209,200332,550
Tender Water Capacity (gals)60004000700035007000
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)12.5013
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)6764645779
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)7262626272
Boiler Pressure (psi)160200180170200
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)22" x 28"19" x 24" (1)19" x 26"20" x 24"20" x 26"
Low Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)30" x 24" (1)
Tractive Effort (lbs)25,59816,95523,16222,37424,556
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.69 6.78 4.97 4.59 5.78
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)191.50140188188170
Grate Area (sq ft)34.5031.6024.903052
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)30001922235221102495
Superheating Surface (sq ft)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)30001922235221102495
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume243.52488.08275.66241.79263.91
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation552063204482510010,400
Same as above plus superheater percentage552063204482510010,400
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area30,64028,00033,84031,96034,000
Power L161685520717761408492
Power MT339.95317.47412.76395.03395.53

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassT-2 / F-13
Locobase ID6462
RailroadHocking Valley (C&O)
CountryUSA
Whyte4-6-0
Number in Class4
Road Numbers89-92
GaugeStd
Number Built4
BuilderAlco
Year1912
Valve GearBaker
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft)14.33
Engine Wheelbase (ft)26.08
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.55
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)56.56
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)
Weight on Drivers (lbs)142,500
Engine Weight (lbs)188,000
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)143,000
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)331,000
Tender Water Capacity (gals)7000
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)13
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)79
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)73
Boiler Pressure (psi)180
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)21" x 26"
Tractive Effort (lbs)24,031
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 5.93
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)154.20
Grate Area (sq ft)51.90
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)2081
Superheating Surface (sq ft)418
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)2499
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume199.66
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation9342
Same as above plus superheater percentage10,930
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area32,475
Power L113,897
Power MT645.00

Reference


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