Central RR of New Jersey 4-6-0 "Ten-wheeler" Locomotives of the USA


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class 178 (Locobase 11791)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Volume 10, p. 242. Works numbers were 5925, 5929 in November 1881; 5948, 5953 in December.

These Ten-wheelers were small even by the early '80s' standards. One note on the specs states that the "Inside seams of furnace [sic] countersunk and all rivets driven nearly flush with sheet except those in water space." The grate had 2 1/4" water tubes.

They all operated for over 30 years with 265 the first to be scrapped in December 1914, followed by 263 in October 1916, 264 in December 1917, and 266 in October 1920.


Class L-3 / T-26 (Locobase 9764)

Data from Angus Sinclair, Railway and Locomotive Engineering, Vol XV, No 8 (August 1902), p. 335-336.

Sinclair pays particular attention to the fireman's position in this class of camelbacks. He explains that a lot of the discomfort and peril of coal-heaving in a double-cab came from requiring the fireman to work from the tender, or worse, straddle the footplate-tender junction just a couple of feet above the rails. In this engine the "coal digger" is placed "on deck" which offered the advantage that "...with all the motion of the engine, the fireman and firehole door maintain the same relative position to each other all the time." As a result, the man moved coal over a shorter distance and at a lower height and would have a truer aim at the door. Another amenity was that the fireman was housed in a complete cab that could be fitted with "curtains over the doors that would make [him] decidedly snug, and furthermore, he can't fall out."

Sinclair claimed that "The engines are very popular on the road, they are well liked by the men, and are doing excellent work".


Class L-5b/c/d/e (Locobase 5037)

Data from CNJ 7 - 1944 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

One of a series of Camelback Ten-wheelers built for the Central of New Jersey, the L-5b sextet (169-174) is featured in the photo section of Bruce's The Steam Locomotive in America (1952). And it's a worthy representative of the type with the center cab wrapped around the boiler and the massive Wootten firebox showing its polished steel over the third driver.

As Bruce depicted the locomotive in its original, saturated-steam state, his data showed a total EHS of 2,512 sq ft. Superheaters for this class -- which had several subclassess -- were installed in the late 1920s and early 1930s for the most part, although a couple were refitted in the early 1920s.

Drury (1993) notes that the 111 Camelbacks "were essentially the same locomotive" and served as mixed-traffic engines into the 1950s.


Class L-6a (Locobase 13672)

Data from DeGolyer, Volume 35, pp 119. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his 20 April 2015 correcting the valve gear ID, tender fuel capacity and its loaded weight.) Works numbers were 35107, 35143 in August 1910; 35239-35244, 35280-35281 in September.

Firebox heating surface included 19 sq ft (1.75 sq m) of combustion chamber. Cylinders received their steam through 13" (330 mm) piston valves.

This class of double-cab passenger power spend much of its career on commuter service and thus were a commonly seen and photographed class. By the 1930s, adhesion weight on the unmodified engines was recorded as 164,600 lb (74,661 kg) and engine weight had grown to 217,200 lb (98,520 kg).

Perhaps surprisingly, these ten locomotives were superheated much later.; see Locobase 6726.


Class L-6as / L-7s (Locobase 6726)

Data from CNJ 7 - 1944 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. See also DeGolyer, Volume 42, pp. 314+. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his 27 August 2015 email reporting the tender's capacity and estimated weight and for suggesting a review of heating surface areas that led to some revisions.) Works numbers were 38758-38762, 38865-38869 in November 1912.

1912 saw Baldwin's delivery of the 760-769 as superheated locomotives. Their increased power almost immediately led to the CNJ's conversion of the L-6s (Locobase 13672) to the same design.

Chris Hohl's email pointed out that the tender weight was originally estimated at 150,000 lb (68,039 kg) and that the Baldwin engines' boiler were set at 200 psi. Their adhesion weight was estimated at 160,000 lb (72,575 kg). When delivered, they had small combustion chambers contributing only 19 sq ft (1.77 sq m).

The ten engines built in 1910 (Locbase 13672) were superheated to the same specifications much later than usual. In the process the L-6s sacrificed 176 small tubes, but gained cylinders with an inch greater diameter. The boilers in the rebuilds did not have combustion chambers and by the time most were modified, the 1912 L-7s had surrendered theirs as well.

755, 757, and 758 were made over in June, August, and July, 1928, respectively. 759 followed in February 1931. After a nine-year pause, the 756 received its upgrade in June 1940. Two more followed in 1941 (754 in April, 752 in November) and 750 followed suit in August 1943.

With no reason to replace these quite-satisfactory engines, their retirements only came in 1953-1954 at the end of steam.


Class L-7as (Locobase 6727)

Data from CNJ 7 - 1944 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. See also DeGolyer, Volume 49, pp. 327+. Works numbers were 41027-41028, 41041-41048 in December 1913.

A later batch of Camelback Ten-wheelers of the same power dimensions as the L-6as and L-7s shown in Locobase 6726, but a grate that was widened a foot to 9 ft 1/4" (2.75 m). Interestingly, the enlargement of the grate resulted in only a very modest increase in firebox heating surface. The short combustion chamber added 18 sq ft (1.67 sq m) to the firebox heating surface area. Piston valve diameter measured 13" (330 mm).

Like the earlier camelback Ten-wheelers on the CNJ, virtually all of these engines served to the end of steam on the railroad in the early-to-mid 1950s.


Class L-8s/T40 (Locobase 6463)

Data from CNJ 7 - 1944 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection, corrected by DeGolyer, Vol 59, pp. 98+. Works numbers were 47868, 47914, 47962 in February 1918; 48027, 48074, 48149 in March; 48280-48283 in April.

And information from John McCoy Oct 10 1998, 12:00 am Newsgroups: misc.transport.rail.americas From: igop ...@ix.netcom.com (John McCoy) Date: 1998/10/10 (accessed 13 March 2005).

Roster information from the Northeast Railroads website http://www.northeast.railfan.net/cnj_steam2.html (accessed 13 March 2005), which Locobase used to identify the class only generally referred to in McCoy's post. Given that only one 4-6-0 class reached 40,000 lb of tractive effort, it's likely that that group of eight engines is the subject of McCoy's data. This was confirmed by the 1944 book, which showed a classic Camelback Ten-wheeler that must have been among the last of the type to be built. Like most 20th century camelbacks, the L-8s had a very short combustion chamber that added only 18 sq ft (1.6 sq m) to the firebox heating surface. Piston valves measured 13" (330 mm) in diameter.

This class was retired at the end of steam in 1950-1954.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Class178L-3 / T-26L-5b/c/d/eL-6aL-6as / L-7s
Locobase ID11,791 9764 5037 13,672 6726
RailroadCentral RR of New JerseyCentral RR of New JerseyCentral RR of New JerseyCentral RR of New JerseyCentral RR of New Jersey
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-0
Number in Class431351020
Road Numbers178-181 / 263-266600-630150-184750-759750-769
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built431351010
BuilderBurnham, Parry, Williams & CoAlco-BrooksBrooksBaldwinCNJ
Year18811902190219101912
Valve GearStephensonStephensonWalschaertBakerWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft)10.5813.2513.5013.5013.50
Engine Wheelbase (ft)21.2324.1224.8324.8324.87
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.50 0.55 0.54 0.54 0.54
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)51.8150.8354.1256.10
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)
Weight on Drivers (lbs)64,000120,000153,000150,000169,000
Engine Weight (lbs)78,000167,000201,500195,000225,100
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)106,000153,800154,000147,000
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)273,000355,300349,000372,100
Tender Water Capacity (gals)24007500750070007500
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)13131612
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)3667858394
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)5669696969
Boiler Pressure (psi)140210210210210
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)18" x 22"19" x 26"20" x 28"22" x 28"23" x 28"
Tractive Effort (lbs)15,14724,28128,97435,05838,318
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.23 4.94 5.28 4.28 4.41
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)123.40156173.60199209
Grate Area (sq ft)25.5067.7083.3081.6081.60
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)12412187189629822276
Superheating Surface (sq ft)374474
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)12412187227029822750
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume191.53256.33186.23242.06169.04
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation357014,21717,49317,13617,136
Same as above plus superheater percentage357014,21720,29217,13620,049
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area17,27632,76042,28941,79051,351
Power L13747839814,541779613,608
Power MT387.22462.86628.58343.74532.55

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassL-7asL-8s/T40
Locobase ID6727 6463
RailroadCentral RR of New JerseyCentral RR of New Jersey
CountryUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-0
Number in Class1010
Road Numbers770-779780-789
GaugeStdStd
Number Built1010
BuilderBaldwinBaldwin
Year19131918
Valve GearWalschaertWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft)13.5013.50
Engine Wheelbase (ft)25.1925.21
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.54 0.54
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)56.4356.43
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)
Weight on Drivers (lbs)170,900170,800
Engine Weight (lbs)225,600225,600
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)151,800151,800
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)377,400377,400
Tender Water Capacity (gals)75007500
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)1313
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)9595
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)6969
Boiler Pressure (psi)200220
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)23" x 28"23" x 28"
Tractive Effort (lbs)36,49340,143
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.68 4.25
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)215211
Grate Area (sq ft)91.4091.40
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)23062306
Superheating Surface (sq ft)477477
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)27832783
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume171.27171.27
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation18,28020,108
Same as above plus superheater percentage21,38823,526
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area50,31054,311
Power L113,10914,382
Power MT507.32556.91