Central RR of New Jersey 4-6-0 "Ten-wheeler" Locomotives of the USA


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class 178 (Locobase 11791)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Volume 10, p. 242. Works numbers were 5925, 5929 in November 1881; 5948, 5953 in December.

These Ten-wheelers were small even by the early '80s' standards. One note on the specs states that the "Inside seams of furnace [sic] countersunk and all rivets driven nearly flush with sheet except those in water space." The grate had 2 1/4" water tubes.

They all operated for over 30 years with 265 the first to be scrapped in December 1914, followed by 263 in October 1916, 264 in December 1917, and 266 in October 1920.


Class L-3 / T-26 (Locobase 9764)

Data from Angus Sinclair, Railway and Locomotive Engineering, Vol XV, No 8 (August 1902), p. 335-336.

Sinclair pays particular attention to the fireman's position in this class of camelbacks. He explains that a lot of the discomfort and peril of coal-heaving in a double-cab came from requiring the fireman to work from the tender, or worse, straddle the footplate-tender junction just a couple of feet above the rails. In this engine the "coal digger" is placed "on deck" which offered the advantage that "...with all the motion of the engine, the fireman and firehole door maintain the same relative position to each other all the time." As a result, the man moved coal over a shorter distance and at a lower height and would have a truer aim at the door. Another amenity was that the fireman was housed in a complete cab that could be fitted with "curtains over the doors that would make [him] decidedly snug, and furthermore, he can't fall out."

Sinclair claimed that "The engines are very popular on the road, they are well liked by the men, and are doing excellent work".


Class L-5b/c/d/e (Locobase 5037)

Data from CNJ 7 - 1944 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

One of a series of Camelback Ten-wheelers built for the Central of New Jersey, the L-5b sextet (169-174) is featured in the photo section of Bruce's The Steam Locomotive in America (1952). And it's a worthy representative of the type with the center cab wrapped around the boiler and the massive Wootten firebox showing its polished steel over the third driver.

As Bruce depicted the locomotive in its original, saturated-steam state, his data showed a total EHS of 2,512 sq ft. Superheaters for this class -- which had several subclassess -- were installed in the late 1920s and early 1930s for the most part, although a couple were refitted in the early 1920s.

Drury (1993) notes that the 111 Camelbacks "were essentially the same locomotive" and served as mixed-traffic engines into the 1950s.


Class L-6a (Locobase 13672)

Data from DeGolyer, Volume 35, pp 119. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his 20 April 2015 correcting the valve gear ID, tender fuel capacity and its loaded weight.) Works numbers were 35107, 35143 in August 1910; 35239-35244, 35280-35281 in September.

Firebox heating surface included 19 sq ft (1.75 sq m) of combustion chamber. Cylinders received their steam through 13" (330 mm) piston valves.

This class of double-cab passenger power spend much of its career on commuter service and thus were a commonly seen and photographed class. By the 1930s, adhesion weight on the unmodified engines was recorded as 164,600 lb (74,661 kg) and engine weight had grown to 217,200 lb (98,520 kg).

Perhaps surprisingly, these ten locomotives were superheated much later.; see Locobase 6726.


Class L-6as / L-7s (Locobase 6726)

Data from CNJ 7 - 1944 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. See also DeGolyer, Volume 42, pp. 314+. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his 27 August 2015 email reporting the tender's capacity and estimated weight and for suggesting a review of heating surface areas that led to some revisions.) Works numbers were 38758-38762, 38865-38869 in November 1912.

1912 saw Baldwin's delivery of the 760-769 as superheated locomotives. Their increased power almost immediately led to the CNJ's conversion of the L-6s (Locobase 13672) to the same design.

Chris Hohl's email pointed out that the tender weight was originally estimated at 150,000 lb (68,039 kg) and that the Baldwin engines' boiler were set at 200 psi. Their adhesion weight was estimated at 160,000 lb (72,575 kg). When delivered, they had small combustion chambers contributing only 19 sq ft (1.77 sq m).

The ten engines built in 1910 (Locbase 13672) were superheated to the same specifications much later than usual. In the process the L-6s sacrificed 176 small tubes, but gained cylinders with an inch greater diameter. The boilers in the rebuilds did not have combustion chambers and by the time most were modified, the 1912 L-7s had surrendered theirs as well.

755, 757, and 758 were made over in June, August, and July, 1928, respectively. 759 followed in February 1931. After a nine-year pause, the 756 received its upgrade in June 1940. Two more followed in 1941 (754 in April, 752 in November) and 750 followed suit in August 1943.

With no reason to replace these quite-satisfactory engines, their retirements only came in 1953-1954 at the end of steam.


Class L-7as (Locobase 6727)

Data from CNJ 7 - 1944 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. See also DeGolyer, Volume 49, pp. 327+. Works numbers were 41027-41028, 41041-41048 in December 1913.

A later batch of Camelback Ten-wheelers of the same power dimensions as the L-6as and L-7s shown in Locobase 6726, but a grate that was widened a foot to 9 ft 1/4" (2.75 m). Interestingly, the enlargement of the grate resulted in only a very modest increase in firebox heating surface. The short combustion chamber added 18 sq ft (1.67 sq m) to the firebox heating surface area. Piston valve diameter measured 13" (330 mm).

Like the earlier camelback Ten-wheelers on the CNJ, virtually all of these engines served to the end of steam on the railroad in the early-to-mid 1950s.


Class L-8s/T40 (Locobase 6463)

Data from CNJ 7 - 1944 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection, corrected by DeGolyer, Vol 59, pp. 98+. Works numbers were 47868, 47914, 47962 in February 1918; 48027, 48074, 48149 in March; 48280-48283 in April.

And information from John McCoy Oct 10 1998, 12:00 am Newsgroups: misc.transport.rail.americas From: igop ...@ix.netcom.com (John McCoy) Date: 1998/10/10 (accessed 13 March 2005).

Roster information from the Northeast Railroads website http://www.northeast.railfan.net/cnj_steam2.html (accessed 13 March 2005), which Locobase used to identify the class only generally referred to in McCoy's post. Given that only one 4-6-0 class reached 40,000 lb of tractive effort, it's likely that that group of eight engines is the subject of McCoy's data. This was confirmed by the 1944 book, which showed a classic Camelback Ten-wheeler that must have been among the last of the type to be built. Like most 20th century camelbacks, the L-8s had a very short combustion chamber that added only 18 sq ft (1.6 sq m) to the firebox heating surface. Piston valves measured 13" (330 mm) in diameter.

This class was retired at the end of steam in 1950-1954.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Class178L-3 / T-26L-5b/c/d/eL-6aL-6as / L-7s
Locobase ID11791 9764 5037 13672 6726
RailroadCentral RR of New JerseyCentral RR of New JerseyCentral RR of New JerseyCentral RR of New JerseyCentral RR of New Jersey
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-0
Number in Class431351020
Road Numbers178-181 / 263-266600-630150-184750-759750-769
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built431351010
BuilderBurnham, Parry, Williams & CoAlco-BrooksBrooksBaldwinCNJ
Year18811902190219101912
Valve GearStephensonStephensonWalschaertBakerWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase10.58'13.25'13.50'13.50'13.50'
Engine Wheelbase21.23'24.12'24.83'24.83'24.87'
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.50 0.55 0.54 0.54 0.54
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender)51.81'50.83'54.12'56.10'
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle)
Weight on Drivers64000 lbs120000 lbs153000 lbs150000 lbs169000 lbs
Engine Weight78000 lbs167000 lbs201500 lbs195000 lbs225100 lbs
Tender Light Weight106000 lbs153800 lbs154000 lbs147000 lbs
Total Engine and Tender Weight273000 lbs355300 lbs349000 lbs372100 lbs
Tender Water Capacity2400 gals7500 gals7500 gals7000 gals7500 gals
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal)13 tons13 tons16 tons12 tons
Minimum weight of rail (calculated)36 lb/yard67 lb/yard85 lb/yard83 lb/yard94 lb/yard
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter56"69"69"69"69"
Boiler Pressure140 psi210 psi210 psi210 psi210 psi
Cylinders (dia x stroke)18" x 22"19" x 26"20" x 28"22" x 28"23" x 28"
Tractive Effort15147 lbs24281 lbs28974 lbs35058 lbs38318 lbs
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.23 4.94 5.28 4.28 4.41
Heating Ability
Firebox Area123.40 sq. ft156 sq. ft173.60 sq. ft199 sq. ft209 sq. ft
Grate Area25.50 sq. ft67.70 sq. ft83.30 sq. ft81.60 sq. ft81.60 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface1241 sq. ft2187 sq. ft1896 sq. ft2982 sq. ft2276 sq. ft
Superheating Surface374 sq. ft474 sq. ft
Combined Heating Surface1241 sq. ft2187 sq. ft2270 sq. ft2982 sq. ft2750 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume191.53256.33186.23242.06169.04
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation357014217174931713617136
Same as above plus superheater percentage357014217202921713620049
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area1727632760422894179051351
Power L13747839814541779613608
Power MT387.22462.86628.58343.74532.55

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassL-7asL-8s/T40
Locobase ID6727 6463
RailroadCentral RR of New JerseyCentral RR of New Jersey
CountryUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-0
Number in Class1010
Road Numbers770-779780-789
GaugeStdStd
Number Built1010
BuilderBaldwinBaldwin
Year19131918
Valve GearWalschaertWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase13.50'13.50'
Engine Wheelbase25.19'25.21'
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.54 0.54
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender)56.43'56.43'
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle)
Weight on Drivers170900 lbs170800 lbs
Engine Weight225600 lbs225600 lbs
Tender Light Weight151800 lbs151800 lbs
Total Engine and Tender Weight377400 lbs377400 lbs
Tender Water Capacity7500 gals7500 gals
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal)13 tons13 tons
Minimum weight of rail (calculated)95 lb/yard95 lb/yard
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter69"69"
Boiler Pressure200 psi220 psi
Cylinders (dia x stroke)23" x 28"23" x 28"
Tractive Effort36493 lbs40143 lbs
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.68 4.25
Heating Ability
Firebox Area215 sq. ft211 sq. ft
Grate Area91.40 sq. ft91.40 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface2306 sq. ft2306 sq. ft
Superheating Surface477 sq. ft477 sq. ft
Combined Heating Surface2783 sq. ft2783 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume171.27171.27
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation1828020108
Same as above plus superheater percentage2138823526
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area5031054311
Power L11310914382
Power MT507.32556.91


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