Delaware & Hudson 4-6-0 "Ten-wheeler" Locomotives of the USA


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class D-3 (Locobase 1160)

Data from table in July 1904 AERJ. Alco-Schenectady's works numbers were 27651-27654 in June 1903. The D&H added five more from its own shops in 1904-1905. Soon after Montreal Locomotive Works joined Alco, they delivered 43703 and 43708 in 1907.

Thirteen-engine double-cab (camelback) class. Firebox heating surface included 78.54 sq ft (7.3 sq m) in arch tubes

All were modified often, some to single-cab layouts. Ultimately, they all had 22" diameter cylinders, a weight on the drivers of 156,800 lb (except 504 & 507, which had 149,650 lb), and a total engine weight of 204,800 lb (504, 507 - 202,300 lb). Boiler pressures ranged from 200 psi (500-501, 506-507, and 558-559) to 210 (502), 215 (504-505), and 225 psi (503, 508, 557, 560-561). Tractive efforts in final form ranged from 30,150 lb to 34,000 lb.

504 and 507 were scrapped before World War II. 503 went to the ferro-knacker in September 1946. All of the others remained in service until 1951-1952.


Class D-3a (Locobase 1161)

Of the 4 locomotives that originally formed this class, only 1 -- 521 -- remained a Camelback when the railroad superheated the quartet. Her data is shown on Locobase 5297.

These 3 (builder's numbers 26908-10) plus 3 others from other D-3 subgroups, had their cabs moved back to a conventional position. More important, perhaps, boiler pressure went up to 225 psi and the cylinders were enlarged by an inch. In the superheated form, steam admission was through 14" piston valves actuated by Walschaerts gear. Valve travel was 7".

See http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/dh/dh-stm-s10.gif (viewed 26 Dec 2002) for diagram and full details.


Class D-3a (Locobase 5297)

See http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/dh/dh-stm-s09.gif (viewed 26 Dec 2002) for diagram and full details.

One of a 4-engine double-cab (Camelback) class. Of these, 521 (builder's number 26907) was least modified when superheated, keeping her original cylinders and boiler pressure as well as the camelback cab arrangement. Her piston valves were actuated by Stephenson link and had a maximum 5 1/2" of travel

521 was scrapped in 1940. It is that configuration that is seen in this entry. The other three are coved in Locobase 1161.


Class D-3b (Locobase 1162)

Class with both double-cab (camelback) (535-557) and single-cab layouts.

The helpful folks at http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/dh/dh-stm-sxx.gifl (viewed 26 December 2002 -- note that the xx means various pages) provide the Delaware & Hudson's locomotive diagrams outlining many of the variations.

According to Drury (1993), featured variations in weight on the drivers and total weight. 534, 558-559 (Alco built in 1907) put 143,000 lb on the drivers. 535-544, built by the D&H in 1905-1906, 130,000 lb; 545-557 (Alco in 1907), 134,000 lb; 590-594 (Alco, 1911), 146,000 lb; and 599 (Alco, 1911), 147,500. 599 had 23 x 26 cylinders, 170-psi boiler.

The Alco engines were fitted with equipment from component suppliers as follows:

Bell ringer Sansom

Boiler lagging Magnesia sectional, Keasbey & Mattlson

Brake-beams Simplex

Brake-shoes Perfecto

Couplers Gould

Headlights Dressel

Injector Hancock for 10 ten-wheelers; Sellers Composite for 5 ten-wheelers

Piston rod packings Trojan

Valve rod packing Trojan

Sanding devices Leach

Sight-feed lubricators Nathan

Springs National

Steam gages Ashcroft

Steam heat equipment Consolidated

Tire, driving wheel Midvale

truck wheel Midvale

tender wheel Mldvale

4 engines (536, 546, 549, and 556) later received 22 x 26" cylinders.

Locobase has three entries:

1) This one, which represents the original, saturated-steam product;

2) The superheated variant (Locobase 4954) , and

3) The Chateaugay-branch subclass (Locobase 4955).

Most were scrapped in the late 1930s and 1940s, with 546 the last under the torch in 1952.


Class D-3b (Locobase 4955)

Although classed D-3b along with the mainline engines profiled in Locobase 1162 and 1160, this set operated solely on the Chateaugay branch between Plattsburgh and Lake Placid, New York. Firebox heating surface included 17.17 sq ft of arch tubes. Builder's numbers ranged from 49656-49661.

http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/dh/dh-stm-sxx.gifl (viewed 26 December 2002 -- note that the xx means various pages) provides the Delaware & Hudson's locomotive diagrams and tells us that these were circumstantially fueled. From April 1 to November 1 of each year they were required to burn oil to protect the forests from the flaming coal embers.

Just one of the class was superheated; see Locobase 4956.


Class D-3b - superheated (Locobase 4956)

http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/dh/dh-stm-sxx.gifl (viewed 26 December 2002 -- note that the xx means various pages) .

This appears to be the one Chateaugay-branch locomotive (Locobaser 4955) that was superheated. Note, too, that the cylinder diameter was increased by 2".

Firebox heating surface included 17.17 sq ft of arch tubes.


Class D-3b - superheated - small (Locobase 4954)

http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/dh/dh-stm-sxx.gifl (viewed 26 December 2002 -- note that the xx means various pages) provides the Delaware & Hudson's locomotive diagrams outlining many of the variations.

This class of Ten-wheelers fissioned into several sub-classes, included superheated versions of the original design.

Locobase has three entries:

1) 1162, which represents the original, saturated-steam product;

2) This one, which includes those superheated engines that also received slightly larger cylinders, and

3) The Chateaugay-branch subclass in Locobase 4955.

Several slightly older D-3as were modified to these boiler dimensions as well.

Most were scrapped in the late 1930s and 1940s, with 546 the last under the torch in 1952.


Class L-1 (Locobase 8367)

Data from D&HCo 1901 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

These two Schenectady engines (works numbers were 791-792 in July 1872) are described in the books as Moguls, but the diagram clearly shows them to be Ten-wheelers.

They came on the road in 1872 and were rebuilt by Green Island in 1891.The dimensions, heating surface areas, and weights are very close to the Class O Moguls (Locobase 8366) and Locobase wonders if they shared the same boilers.

Both were retired between 1899 and 1903.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassD-3D-3aD-3aD-3bD-3b
Locobase ID1160 1161 5297 1162 4955
RailroadDelaware & HudsonDelaware & HudsonDelaware & HudsonDelaware & HudsonDelaware & Hudson
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-0
Number in Class1361336
Road Numbers500-508, 557-561500, 522-24, 558-59521534-559, 590-594,599590-594, 599
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built13337
BuilderseveralAlco-SchenectadyAlco-SchenectadyseveralAlco
Year19031927192819051911
Valve GearStephensonWalschaertStephensonWalschaertBaker
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft)1515151515
Engine Wheelbase (ft)26.3326.4226.4226.4226.59
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.57 0.57 0.57 0.57 0.56
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)53.6262.2553.715957.87
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)
Weight on Drivers (lbs)131,500160,000136,000135,900146,500
Engine Weight (lbs)175,000208,000186,000188,400193,500
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)120,166135,000102,900135,000121,100
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)295,166343,000288,900323,400314,600
Tender Water Capacity (gals)68008000700068006800
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)1214121414
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)7389767681
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)7269696863
Boiler Pressure (psi)200225200200200
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)21" x 26"22" x 26"21" x 26"21" x 26"21" x 26"
Tractive Effort (lbs)27,07334,88028,25028,66530,940
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.86 4.59 4.81 4.74 4.73
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)258.22180180180168.13
Grate Area (sq ft)84.8584.9084.9184.9150.17
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)26641897189725842807
Superheating Surface (sq ft)375375
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)26642272227225842807
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume255.59165.83182.00247.92269.31
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation16,97019,10316,98216,98210,034
Same as above plus superheater percentage16,97022,35019,86916,98210,034
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area51,64447,38542,12036,00033,626
Power L1910713,96113,62075777349
Power MT458.04577.10662.36368.75331.78

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassD-3b - superheatedD-3b - superheated - smallL-1
Locobase ID4956 4954 8367
RailroadDelaware & HudsonDelaware & HudsonDelaware & Hudson
CountryUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-04-6-0
Number in Class172
Road Numbers599534-6, 546, 548, 549, 556234-235
GaugeStdStdStd
Number Built2
BuilderAlcoseveralD&H
Year191119271891
Valve GearWalschaertWalschaertStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft)14.501513.85
Engine Wheelbase (ft)26.7526.4223.35
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.54 0.57 0.59
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)58.045943.52
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)
Weight on Drivers (lbs)148,800160,00068,950
Engine Weight (lbs)200,300208,00094,400
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)121,100135,00058,000
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)321,400343,000152,400
Tender Water Capacity (gals)680068003142
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)290014 6.70
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)838938
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)636857.50
Boiler Pressure (psi)200215160
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)23" x 26"22" x 26"18" x 24"
Tractive Effort (lbs)37,11433,82018,392
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.01 4.73 3.75
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)167.87180106
Grate Area (sq ft)50.1784.9125.40
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)228718971342
Superheating Surface (sq ft)461375
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)274822721342
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume182.92165.83189.85
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation10,03418,2564064
Same as above plus superheater percentage11,74021,3594064
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area39,28245,27916,960
Power L112,22013,1474061
Power MT543.15543.45389.54

Reference