East Tennessee & Western North Carolina 4-6-0 "Ten-wheeler" Locomotives of the USA


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class 10 (Locobase 4893)

Narrow-gauge Consolidations, of which 12 was celebrated on its 80th birthday (February 1997) on the urbaneagle.com/slim/etwnc-no12bday.html website. See also DeGolyer, Volumes 51, pp. 304+; Volume 53, pp. 374+ ; and Volume 59, p 408. Works numbers were 42766 in December 1915, 42862 in February 1916, 45069 in February 1917, and 52406 in June 1919.

Although the class was bought over a four-year period, all four of these "passenger and freight" locomotives shown in this entry conformed to the same design, which was a hearty enough Ten-wheeler with good power to tackle the 4 1/2% grades and 30 degree curves that were part of the Tweetsie's operating environment.

10 and 14 were sold in May 1942 to the traffic-beleaguered White Pass & Yukon Railway. Alas, both were trapped in the roundhouse in December 1943 when the structure caught fire and apparently neither saw service again before being scrapped in December 1945. 11served the Tweetsie until it was scrapped in February 1952.

Shenandoah Central bought 12 from the ET&WNC in December 1952 and operated it until August 1955, when the SC sold it back to the Tweetsie.


Class 10 (Locobase 13910)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Volumes 51, p. 304; 53, p. 375; and 59, p. 408. See also Cy Crumley's photos and notebook as edited by Kenneth Riddle at http://www.johnsonsdepot.com/crumley/tour13.htm, last accessed 1 March 1912. Works numbers were 42766 in December 1915, 42862 in February 1916, 45069 in February 1917, and 52406 in September 1919.

Road number #10 reached the Tweetsie about three years after the 9 (Locobase 13909). Built along the same lines as the 9, the 10 had slightly larger cylinders and slightly longer tubes as well as a requirement in the specs that weight on the drivers amount to no less than 75,000 lb. The specified adhesion weight was 77,000 lb (34,927 kg) for the 10-11 and 80,050 lb (36,287 kg) for the 12 and 14..

The 10 and 14 were sold in May 1942 to the White Pass & Yukon. A year and a half later in December 1943, however, both engines were irreparably damaged in a roundhouse fire and scrapped in December 1945.

In contrast to 10's cross-continent displacement, the 11 never left the home rails and was scrapped in February 1952.

12 remained with the Eat Taters & Wear No Clothes until the narrow-gauge portion of the network closed in 1950. It was sold to the Shenandoah Central of Penn Laird, Va in December 1952, but Hurricane Hazel washed much of that tourist road away in October 1954. The 12 was spared, but needed a complete overhaul, which Frank Coffey administered at the Hickory shops of the Southern Railway. In May 1957, the 12 was trucked up to the Blowing Rock station of the Tweetsie.

As of 2012, the 12 steamed on a regular schedule as it neared another complete overhaul. The steam-engine shop at the railway had developed sufficient expertise not only to keep the 12 and its S118 Mikado stablemate in running order but also to accept contract work from other narrow-gauge railroads.


Class 4 (Locobase 12637)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Volume 25, p. 155. Works numbers were 21114 in October 1902, 21893 in March 1903, and 24734 in September 1904.

See Locobase 11782 for an account of the Tweetsie's history. This triocame onto the road to supply some additional power to this slim-rail line.

In the mid-teens, all three engines were used to support construction of the 14-mile extension from Montezuma by the Linville River (another Applachian railroad bought by the Tweetsie in 1913 and known as the Arbuckle Coffee Line). Boone, NC, 8 miles further off would see its first passenger service in May 1919.

4 and 5 were scrapped in November 1936 and 6 in July 1937.


Class 8 (Locobase 13175)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Volume 31, p. 11. Works number was 31479 in August 1907.

Locobase 11782 has a description of the Blue Ridge Stemwinder, the railroad also known as the Tweetsie. This Ten-wheeler had a short wheelbase even for the Tweetsie. The specs asked for the boiler "...to be set as low as possible."

The 8 was sold to Gray Lumber of Waverly, WVa in October 1924 because the Tweetsie had found it was too light for their requirements. Gray Lumber was satisfied enough to operate the 8 into the 1950s before scrapping it in 1951.


Class 9 (Locobase 13909)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Volume 41, p. 123. Works number was 36440 in April 1911.

The 9 was bigger than earlier Tweetsie Ten-wheelers, put more power on the rails, and weighed more. Even so, the 9 had to meet axle-loading limitations while still mustering enough power to scale 4 1/2% grades and negotiate 30-deg curves.

Like several earlier ET & WNC locomotives, the 9 was sent over to the Linville Railroad in 1917 to support its construction and operation. After the Arbuckle Line endured declining traffic, then suffered a devastating flood in 1940, the Interstate Commerce Commission granted permission to abandon the line in March 1941. The Tweetsie regained the 9 in October 1941 and ran it until it was scrapped in 1951.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Class1010489
Locobase ID4893 13,910 12,637 13,175 13,909
RailroadEast Tennessee & Western North CarolinaEast Tennessee & Western North CarolinaEast Tennessee & Western North CarolinaEast Tennessee & Western North CarolinaEast Tennessee & Western North Carolina
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-0
Number in Class44311
Road Numbers10-12, 1410-12, 144-689
Gauge3'3'3'3'3'
Number Built44311
BuilderBaldwinBaldwinBurnham, Williams & CoBurnham, Williams & CoBaldwin
Year19151915190319071911
Valve GearWalschaertWalschaertStephensonStephensonWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft)101010.8399
Engine Wheelbase (ft)19.5019.5018.1718.2518.50
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.51 0.51 0.60 0.49 0.49
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)464443.96
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)
Weight on Drivers (lbs)80,05075,00063,00059,00069,000
Engine Weight (lbs)98,80096,00073,00073,00085,000
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)60,00060,00050,00060,000
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)158,800156,000123,000145,000
Tender Water Capacity (gals)30003000200025003000
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)444
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)4442353338
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)4545374545
Boiler Pressure (psi)180180160180180
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)16" x 22"16" x 22"15" x 20"15" x 20"15" x 22"
Tractive Effort (lbs)19,14919,14916,54115,30016,830
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.18 3.92 3.81 3.86 4.10
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)11611687.5078.40100
Grate Area (sq ft)15.5015.501411.9014.60
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)1303130310129921238
Superheating Surface (sq ft)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)1303130310129921238
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume254.51254.51247.40242.51275.13
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation27902790224021422628
Same as above plus superheater percentage27902790224021422628
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area20,88020,88014,00014,11218,000
Power L149654965349645685214
Power MT410.22437.84367.02512.07499.78