Augusta & Florida / Georgia & Florida / Millen & Southwestern 4-6-0 "Ten-wheeler" Locomotives of the USA

Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class 10 (Locobase 12753)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Volume 27, p. 57. Works numbers were 24339-24340 in June 1904.

The Millen & Southwestern short line linked Millen and Stillmore over a 53-mile stretch in Georgia. These two Ten-wheelers had a note included in their specs that reflects the exigencies of a marginal operation: "Be very careful not to overrun weight on drivers on account of very light rail. Guaranteed to haul 270 to 280 tons of 2240 lbs up a straight grade of 2%, cars and track in good condition." The specs added that there should be enough metal in the cylinders to allow them to be bored out to 18".

The M & SW was merged with several other roads into John Skelton Williams' Georgia & Florida Railway system in 1906. The order of road numbers reversed for some reason when the G & F assigned 15 and 14 respectively; they were later renumbered 151, 150. 150 was sold to the 3-mile Sandersville Railroad in May 1934 while 151 went to the Milstead Railroad, an industrial short line also in Georgia, in November 1935.

Class 20 (Locobase 12755)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Volume 27, p. 57. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his 7 April 2015 email noting an improbably high value for the tender's coal capacity.) Works numbers were 24997, 25021 in January 1905.

When the Georgia & Florida was formed by combining the M & SW with 5 other Georgia shortlines in 1906, the G & F renumbered these two Ten-wheelers as 130-131. 130 was sold in 1922 to the Tampa & Jacksonville (later Jacksonville Gainesville & Gulf) as their 70. It was scrapped in August 1932. Also in 1922, the G & F sold the 131 to locomotive rebuilder/reseller Southern Iron & Equipment. SI & E found a buyer in Ruston, Louisiana-based Wyatt Lumber only a few months later.

Class 50 (Locobase 12754)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Volume 32 p. 51; Vol 34, p. 144, 146.. Works numbers were 33224-33225 in February 1909 and 34699-34703, 34725 in May 1910.

John Skelton Williams formed the Georgia & Florida Railway system in 1906. According to the Rail Georgia site ( the six smaller railroads that were amalgamated were:

Name Connecting Miles

Augusta & Florida Railway Keysville-Midville) 30

Atlantic & Gulf Short Line Railroad Midville-Swainsboro 20

Douglas, Augusta & Gulf Railway Hazlehurst-Nashville 87

Barrows Bluff-Broxton

Millen & Southwestern Millen-Stillmore 53

Nashville & Sparks Railway Nashville-Sparks 12

Valdosta Southern Railway Valdosta-Madison, Fla 28

Williams later built three connecting segments that created a single mainline south from Augusta to Madison, Fla., acquired trackage rights to the Keysville-Augusta section of the Augusta Southern, acquired the Sparks-Western Railway, the Augusta Southern itself, and leased the Midland.

By 1930, the slow dissolution of the Williams system had begun and would slowly take hold until the Southern bought the remaining segments in 1963.

All but one of these low-drivered Ten-wheelers served the G & F throughout their careers. The specifications pages record 1916 correspondence between G & F and Baldwin concerning frame cracks. The resolution appears to have been that the frames would be made heavier.

51 was scrapped in 1951, 52-57 in February 1955. 50 was sold in August 1937 to Apalachicola Northern as their 151.

Class 6 (Locobase 12869)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Volume 28 Vol 34, p. 144, 146.. Works number was 27098 in December 1905.

Not long after the 30-mile A & F took delivery of the 6 from Baldwin, John Skelton Williams's Georgia & Florida absorbed the road; see Locobase 12754 for a summary of this consolidated line. In the amalgamation, the 6 became the #10.

Not willing (or perhaps wealthy enough) to discard locomotives, the G & F kept this small, wood-burning Ten-wheeler in service for decades. It was scrapped in December 1950.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Locobase ID12,753 12,755 12,754 12,869
RailroadMillen & Southwestern (G&F)Millen & Southwestern (G&F)Georgia & Florida (G&F)Augusta & Florida (G&F)
Number in Class2281
Road Numbers10, 12 / 15, 1420, 24 / 11-1251, 50, 52-57 / 205-2126 / 10 / 130
Number Built2281
BuilderBurnham, Williams & CoBurnham, Williams & CoBaldwinBurnham, Williams & Co
Valve GearStephensonStephensonWalschaertStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft)11.331013.5012.83
Engine Wheelbase (ft)21.5820.1523.8322.98
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.53 0.50 0.57 0.56
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)44.31
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)
Weight on Drivers (lbs)90,50073,000117,00074,000
Engine Weight (lbs)114,00095,000151,00099,000
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)72,00072,000100,00060,000
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)186,000167,000251,000159,000
Tender Water Capacity (gals)3500350050003000
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)50416541
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)54565656
Boiler Pressure (psi)180180200180
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)17" x 24"16" x 24"19" x 26"16" x 24"
Tractive Effort (lbs)19,65216,78628,49316,786
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.61 4.35 4.11 4.41
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)146123.20161.9090
Grate Area (sq ft)22.2019.7228.6515.50
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)1628125522001222
Superheating Surface (sq ft)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)1628125522001222
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume258.21224.71257.85218.80
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation3996355057302790
Same as above plus superheater percentage3996355057302790
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area26,28022,17632,38016,200
Power L16059562865845029
Power MT442.80509.90372.19449.47

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