Louisiana & Arkansas 4-6-0 "Ten-wheeler" Locomotives of the USA

Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class 170 (Locobase 6134)

Data from 1918 USRA diagram book of L&A locomotives supplied by Allen Stanley in March 2004. Works number was 22604 in August 1903.

It's interesting to see that this locomotive had the same adhesion weight as did the L & A's only Consolidation. The difference was that this Ten-wheeler put that weight on one less axle. The design suited conditions well apparently because only one change was made on the series-production 4-6-0s that followed. See Locobase 6135.

The L&A was the 1928 amalgamation of the Louisian Railway & Navigation (LR & N) and a small Arkansas logging road known as the L & A. The LR & N that opened in 1897 was a 304-mile long road whose mainline ran from New Orleans through Shreveport and was known as the Edenborn Line. The connection to McKinney, Texas (near Dallas) came in 1923. Ultimately the Kansas City Southern (KCS) acquired control in 1939, but operated the L & A as a separate entity.

During its LR & N period, it had to have been a light-rail line.

Class 171 (Locobase 6135)

Data from 1918 USRA diagram book of L&A locomotives supplied by Allen Stanley in March 2004. Works numbers were 22605 in August 1903; 22952, 23015, 23113 in October; 23121 in November; 23643, 23658 in January 1904..

Locobase 6134 showed the first Ten-wheeler -- 170 -- for this railroad; it was fitted with 19" x 24" cylinders. This entry shows the 7 that followed in the same year starting with 171. In fact, 171 introduced the larger cylinder that was the biggest difference -- its weight was the same as the 170. Locobase wonders if the L & A was testing whether the larger cylinders were really worth the extra weight and cost.

The 172-177 all weighed about 2 1/2 tons less -- was this a weight-reduction program? In all other respects, the design was the same as the 171.

Class 200 (Locobase 6136)

Data from 1918 USRA diagram book of L&A locomotives supplied by Allen Stanley in March 2004. Works numbers were 26445-26446 in September 1905, 26950-26951 in November; 27766, 27794 in March 1906; and 28855-28856 in August.

The mixed-traffic 171 class shown in Locobase 6135 was joined three years later by this frankly freight octet. One -- 200 -- later had its cylinders bushed down to 19 1/4" for a commensurate drop in tractive effort. These freight haulers broke the 20 tons per axle mark.

Class 400 (Locobase 6138)

Data from 1918 USRA diagram book of L&A locomotives supplied by Allen Stanley in March 2004. Works numbers were 37714-37715 in April 1912, 39552-39553 in March 1913, 39702-39703 in April.

Although still using saturated steam, these Ten-wheelers were the first with real size about them on the L & A. The axle loadings were reasonably dense, the boiler large, and the tractive effort promised some good medium-duty freight hauling. The engines rode on 75 lb/yard (37.5 kg/metre) rail on the main line (60 lb/30 kg on the sidings), but had gentle grades (1%) and curves (4 degrees) to contend with.

The first two had 192-sq ft fireboxes, the succeeding class had the slightly larger furnaces shown in the specs.

All of them were rebuilt in 1927-1931 with 22" cylinders and renumbered 506-511. 506 was sold in March 1948 to the Tremont & Gulf. (The T & G was a logging road in Northeast Louisiana that opened in 1905 and ultimately extended a total of 98.5 miles in 4 directions. See Jack M Willis "Early railroads built for mills: Tremont operations supported by T&GRailroad in NE Louisiana" hosted on http://www.thepineywoods.com/earlyral.htm, last accessed 28 March 2010.)

Three -- 507-508, 510 -- were sold directly to the South Shore Railroad in 1947-1948. 509 went to the Louisiana Midland first, then over to the South Shore.

Class 500 (Locobase 6139)

Data from 1918 USRA diagram book of L&A locomotives supplied by Allen Stanley in March 2004. See also DeGolyer, Vol 53, pp. 346+ and Vol 59, pp. 428+. Works numbers were 43998 in August 1916, 44105 in September, and 53105-53106, 53178-53179 in April 1920.

At the time of the book, these were the only superheated locomotives on the L & A and used 12" (305 mm) piston valves to supply the cylinders with steam. Freight haulers with some good power and among the largest Ten-wheelers being built in North America, they were now heavy enough to have broken the 25-ton axle loading level. Even so, they were probably a bit slippery.

The USRA's diagram shows 218 small tubes, an increase over the Baldwin specs of two years earlier; the latter reproduce the Locomotive Superheater Company's Specification No. P-1161. Indeed, all of the heating surfaces are greater except for the superheater:. 2,537 sq ft (235.7 sq m) evaporative including 200 sq ft (18.6 sq m) in the firebox, 500 sq ft (46.4 sq m) of superheater area. Boiler pressure is shown as 200 psi. (13.8 bar).

Note that when Baldwin duplicated the 1916 design, the dimensions matched those of the earlier specification, not the USRA numbers.

501 was scrapped in November 1947 and 500 went in June 1948. Three of the 1920 batch found new homes after the L&A dieselized. Louisiana Midland picked up 503 in May 1948, 502 joined the Texas & Northern in April 1949, and 504 Was bought by the Texas Southeastern in January 1950. 505 was scrapped in December 1953.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Locobase ID6134 6135 6136 6138 6139
RailroadLouisiana & ArkansasLouisiana & ArkansasLouisiana & ArkansasLouisiana & ArkansasLouisiana & Arkansas
Number in Class17862
Road Numbers170171-177, 200-200-207400-405 / 506-511500-501
Number Built17862
BuilderBurnham, Williams & CoBurnham, Williams & CoBurnham, Williams & CoBaldwinBaldwin
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonWalschaertSouthern
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase14'14'14'14.83'14.83'
Engine Wheelbase24'24'24'25.50'25.50'
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.58 0.58 0.58 0.58 0.58
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender)53.54'55.21'55.21'62.29'61.67'
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle)38668 lbs36995 lbs40350 lbs47150 lbs51600 lbs
Weight on Drivers114365 lbs109365 lbs119340 lbs139750 lbs153000 lbs
Engine Weight149397 lbs139085 lbs152000 lbs179000 lbs194000 lbs
Tender Light Weight104300 lbs115700 lbs115700 lbs149100 lbs143300 lbs
Total Engine and Tender Weight253697 lbs254785 lbs267700 lbs328100 lbs337300 lbs
Tender Water Capacity5000 gals5000 gals5000 gals7000 gals7000 gals
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal)12 tons12 tons12 tons12 tons14 tons
Minimum weight of rail (calculated)64 lb/yard61 lb/yard66 lb/yard78 lb/yard85 lb/yard
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter63"63"57"57"57"
Boiler Pressure180 psi180 psi200 psi200 psi200 psi
Cylinders (dia x stroke)19" x 26"20" x 26"20" x 26"21" x 28"22" x 28"
Tractive Effort22795 lbs25257 lbs31018 lbs36827 lbs40418 lbs
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 5.02 4.33 3.85 3.79 3.79
Heating Ability
Firebox Area166 sq. ft166 sq. ft165 sq. ft200 sq. ft200 sq. ft
Grate Area24.80 sq. ft24.80 sq. ft33.30 sq. ft34.20 sq. ft34.40 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface2134 sq. ft2134 sq. ft2302 sq. ft2901 sq. ft2449 sq. ft
Superheating Surface548 sq. ft
Combined Heating Surface2134 sq. ft2134 sq. ft2302 sq. ft2901 sq. ft2997 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume250.11225.73243.50258.45198.80
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation44644464666068406880
Same as above plus superheater percentage44644464666068408118
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area2988029880330004000047200
Power L1656659266285660312926
Power MT379.72358.38348.32312.50558.76


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