Anniston & Cincinnati / Kentucky Central / Kentucky Union / Lexington & Eastern / Louisiana & NorthWest / Louisville & Nashville / Louisville, Henderson & St Louis / Marietta & North Georgia / Richmond, Nicholasville, Irvine & Beattyville 4-6-0 "Ten-wheeler" Locomotives of the USA


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class 14 / G-5 (Locobase 9801)

Data from L&N 8 1927 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.


Class 14/G-18 (Locobase 9806)

Data from L&N 8 1927 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. See also DeGolyer, Volume 14, p. 168. Baldwin works numbers 9959-9960 in April 1889; 10664 in February 1890; and 11272, 11276 in October 1890.

A typical mid-sized Ten-wheeler design from Baldwin in the late 1880s. The cylinder volume and boiler evaporative surface area overmatched the small firebox.

In 1896, the M&NG was absorbed by the Atlanta, Knoxville & Northern, which in turn was succeeded by the Louisville & Nashville in 1905.

All but the first of the class were scrapped by the L&N in 1925 (362, 364) and 1929 (361, 363). The 360 was sold to the Frankfort & Cincinnati as their #7.


Class 2 (Locobase 11571)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines, 1888, as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Volume 15, p. 9. Works numbers were 9799 and 9804 in February 1889.

For all the grandly scaled ambitions revealed in its name, the A&C simply connected Anniston, Alabama with nearby Attalla, Ala, 34.33 miles away in 1889. The all-steel rail weighed 56 lb/yard (26 kg/metre). These two standard-gauge Ten-wheelers were on the property in 1890 when the Louisville & Nashville bought the A&C, combined it with the then-narrow-gauge Anniston & Atlantic to create the Alabama Mineral Road.

In 1891, the L&N took full control of the AMR and renumbered these two engines as 405-406. After a further renumbering, the L&N converted the pair to Eight-wheeled 4-4-0s; see Locobase


Class 22 (Locobase 13886)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Volume 40, p. 119 and Volume 43, p. 118. Works numbers were 37003-37005 in September 1911 and 39266 in February 1913.

A quartet of Ten-wheelers with extended smokeboxes trailing cylindrical tenders. Locobase found a couple of references in 1911 orders to a need to strengthen the back equalizing beam both by crafting it of wrot [sic] iron and redesigning the beams between the drivers "...and made strong enough to carry the loads." Could Baldwin have briefly tried to use another material (i.e., steel) and slimmed down the profile to lighten it? If so, the change proved unsuccessful and Baldwin would have to find other ways to meet the emphatic stricture to keep the weight limited to 100,000 lb on the drivers.

At some point, the four engines were converted to oil burning.

25 was delivered with a 190-psi boiler setting. It was sold in April 1924 to Hodge Hunt Lumber Company of Hodge, La. 24 was sold to Ansley, Louisiana's Davis Brothers Lumber.


Class 3 / G-0 (Locobase 12022)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Volume 17, p. 238. Works numbers were 12514 in March 1892 and 13623 in August 1893. (Thanks to Eric Zabilka for his April 2013 email correcting the railroad's name and providing information on the 4's tender.)

This railroad operated in eastern Kentucky. Known as the Riney-B and the Three Forks Railroad, it entered receivership even before it was completed. Rescued by the Louisville & Atlantic, the RNI&B was then completed to Beatty.

#4 was delivered with a 3,200 US gallon (12,112 litre) tender. It was sold to the Finkbine Lumber Company in 1907. In 1909, the Louisville & Nashville bought out the L & A. 3 remained with the railway until it was scrapped in 1924.


Class 9/G-19 (Locobase 9807)

Data from L&N 8 1927 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. Baldwin works number 12726 in June 1892.

This engine was originally delivered as a Vauclain compound; see Locobase 16169.

The 365 continued in service for well over a decade until it was scrapped in 1933.


Class 9/G-19 (Locobase 16169)

Data from L&N 8 1927 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. See also Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Volume 18, p. 30 . Baldwin works number 12726 in June 1892.

This engine was originally delivered to the KU as a Vauclain compound. Like all Vauclain compounds, the HP and LP cylinders on each side of the boiler were cast as a single unit together with a piston valve that supplied both with steam. This relatively early example had a modest cylinder volume, but 10 1/2 (279 mm) diameter piston valves.

In 1894, the KU was absorbed by the Lexington & Eastern. Sometime later, the engine was simpled; see Locobase 9807.


Class G-0 (Locobase 9799)

Data from L&N 8 1927 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.


Class G-10 (Locobase 9808)

Data from L&N 8 1927 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. Works numbers were 5045-5049 in August 1895.


Class G-11 (Locobase 8134)

Data from L&N 8-1927 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

Although it was delivered a full decade after the G8 shown in Locobase 1098, this class had many of the same characteristics. In both, the Belpaire firebox is not readily apparent in illustrations because so much of it is contained within the cab. Other than a 2" increase in piston stroke and the inevitable increase in weight, the two classes were essentially identical. The last of the class was retired in 1940.


Class G-12 (Locobase 8136)

Data from L&N 8-1927 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. Cooke works numbers 2317-2320.

The numbering and class ID puts it right after G-11 (Locobase 8135) yet the design is quite different. The boiler is an extended wagon top with substantially less firebox heating surface area, the driver diameter measures 3" less, it weighs less, and trails a smaller tender.


Class G-13 (Locobase 8135)

Data from L&N 8-1927 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. Works numbers were 23316, 23325-23326, 23340, 23355-23356, 23379-23380, 23421 in December 1903; 23475, 23479 in January 1904.

Slightly larger and heavier than earlier Ten-wheelers with 20 x 26 cylinders, this locomotive design also had a bigger grate and higher boiler pressure. In addition, 2 arch tubes added 13 sq ft to the firebox heating surface. G-13A #318 was fitted with Walschaert radial valve gear.


Class G-2 (Locobase 8141)

Data from L&N 8 1927 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

According to a compilation of Cooke locomotives by B.Rumary 25 Kingscombe, Gurney Slade, Radstock, BA3 4TH, ENGLAND) and supplied to Locobase by Allen Stanley in March 2004, works numbers for 366-385 were 2166-2185 and delivered from July to October 1892. (The Rumary-Lambert list identifies these as 2-8-0s, but no L & N numbering matches this range other than the 4-6-0s described).

These were relatively small Ten-wheelers even for the early 1890s. The shallow firebox's heating surface didn't even amount to 5% of the total. By 1927, only 367 still appeared on the L & N's active-duty roster.


Class G-23 (Locobase 9810)

Data from L&N 8 1927 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. Baldwin works numbers included 35292-35293 in September 1910, 36437 in April 1911, 38456-38457, 38605 in October 1912; 38925-38927 in December.

The earliest of this class of Ten-wheelers didn't go into the L & N, but was sold to the Alabama, Tennessee & Northern instead. 29 was taken into the L & N, as were the 31-33, which served the L & N until March 1951, June 1947, and May 1951, respectively. For some reason, the last 3 of the class were scrapped before the LH & StL was bought by the Louisville & Nashville.


Class G-6 - rebuilt (Locobase 9802)

Data from L&N 8 1927 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. Baldwin works number 15271.

After nearly 30 years of service the single G-6, by now renumbered three times (200, 290, 390) was substantially rebuilt with larger cylinders and a bigger boiler and firebox. In its much more powerful configuration, 390 ran until 1937.


Class G-6/500 (Locobase 9940)

Data from "Baldwin Locomotives at Nashville Exposition," Locomotive Engineering, Vol. X, No 7 (July 1897), page 158. See also DeGolyer, Volume 21, p. 62. Works number was 15271 in April 1897,

The locomotive was produced by Baldwin for display at the 1897 Tennessee Centennial and International Exposition. Perhaps toward that end, the engine was specified "to work satisfactorily on a trial of 1,000 miles [1,610 km] on a freight train."

Special equipment (i.e., components supplied from outside sources):

Westinghouse air brake

Westinghouse air signal

Standard Steel Works driving-wheel tires;

Standard Steel Works wrought-iron spoke-center wheels

Monitor injectors

Coale muffled safety valves

Keasbey & Mattison magnesia sectional boiler lagging

Leach's pneumatic sand blast

Nathan automatic sight feed lubricator, and

United States metallic packing.

It was substantially rebuilt in 1924; see Locobase 9802.


Class G-7 (Locobase 9803)

Data from L&N 8 1927 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. Baldwin works number 15271.


Class G-8 (Locobase 1098)

Data from L&N 1931ca Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

Typical turn-of-the-century 4-6-0, this one with a tapered boiler. Nock (RWC II, pl 83) points out that the Belpaired firebox is not readily apparent in illustrations because so much of it is contained within the cab.


Class G-9 (Locobase 9805)

Data from L&N 8 1927 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Class14 / G-514/G-182223 / G-0
Locobase ID9801 9806 11,571 13,886 12,022
RailroadKentucky Central (L&N)Marietta & North Georgia (L&N)Anniston & Cincinnati (L&N)Louisiana & NorthWestRichmond, Nicholasville, Irvine & Beattyville (L&N)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-0
Number in Class65242
Road Numbers14-19 / 334-339 / 446-45114-18/360-3642, 4 / 405-406 / 332-33322-2561-62 /550-551
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built65242
BuilderSchenectadyBurnham, Williams & CoBurnham, Parry, Williams & CoBaldwinBurnham, Williams & Co
Year18881889188919111892
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonWalschaertStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft)13.5013.5013.501413.83
Engine Wheelbase (ft)24.1723.5023.6524.3324.06
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.56 0.57 0.57 0.58 0.57
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)48.5846.7552.96
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)27,40024,200
Weight on Drivers (lbs)76,20069,20067,00097,00072,000
Engine Weight (lbs)107,00098,00092,000130,50096,000
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)75,10072,000100,000
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)182,100170,000230,500
Tender Water Capacity (gals)32003000300050003000
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)7710
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)4238375440
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)5555545656
Boiler Pressure (psi)150140130180140
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)18" x 24"19" x 24"18" x 24"18" x 26"19" x 24"
Tractive Effort (lbs)18,02618,74615,91223,01618,411
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.23 3.69 4.21 4.21 3.91
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)143126125.40149128.10
Grate Area (sq ft)1716.5016.7531.7017.10
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)14781502139119371464
Superheating Surface (sq ft)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)14781502139119371464
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume209.09190.71196.79252.95185.89
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation25502310217857062394
Same as above plus superheater percentage25502310217857062394
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area21,45017,64016,30226,82017,934
Power L142663474334058843492
Power MT370.27332.03329.71401.20320.77

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Class9/G-199/G-19G-0G-10G-11
Locobase ID9807 16,169 9799 9808 8134
RailroadLexington & Eastern (L&N)Kentucky Union (L&N)Louisville & Nashville (L&N)Louisville & Nashville (L&N)Louisville & Nashville (L&N)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-0
Number in Class11155
Road Numbers9/3659/36576/340250-254/300-304305-309
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built1155
BuilderShopsBurnham, Williams & CoCookeRogersRhode Island
Year1892189018951901
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft)11.5011.5013.6713.2513.25
Engine Wheelbase (ft)22.1922.3323.9224.2924.42
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.52 0.52 0.57 0.55 0.54
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)49.4248.1251.2151.21
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)36,00031,60041,30041,000
Weight on Drivers (lbs)110,50090,00083,000117,800118,000
Engine Weight (lbs)123,000116,800109,800151,000154,000
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)110,50082,500113,000113,000
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)233,500192,300264,000267,000
Tender Water Capacity (gals)30003000390050005000
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)7771010
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)6150466566
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)6060576767
Boiler Pressure (psi)180180150175175
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)19" x 24"13" x 24"18" x 24"20" x 26"20" x 26"
Low Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)22" x 24"
Tractive Effort (lbs)22,09315,33217,39423,09023,090
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 5.00 5.87 4.77 5.10 5.11
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)170170124185180
Grate Area (sq ft)23.7023.70172828
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)19341934132720392033
Superheating Surface (sq ft)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)19341934132720392033
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume245.56524.54187.73215.68215.04
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation42664266255049004900
Same as above plus superheater percentage42664266255049004900
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area30,60030,60018,60032,37531,500
Power L163634746392561276063
Power MT380.85348.77312.76344.00339.83

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassG-12G-13G-2G-23G-6 - rebuilt
Locobase ID8136 8135 8141 9810 9802
RailroadLouisville & Nashville (L&N)Louisville & Nashville (L&N)Louisville & Nashville (L&N)Louisville, Henderson & St Louis (L&N)Louisville & Nashville (L&N)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-0
Number in Class4112081
Road Numbers260-263 / 310-313266-275 / 314-324366-38528-29, 31-36500 / 390
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built411208
BuilderCookeBurnham, Williams & CoCookeBaldwinL&N
Year18991903189219101924
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonWalschaertStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft)12.1713.2513.501313
Engine Wheelbase (ft)23.0824.4224.3323.9224.17
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.53 0.54 0.55 0.54 0.54
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)49.8451.7548.7551.2554.71
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)39,00045,00026,50038,00045,500
Weight on Drivers (lbs)114,000128,00073,600104,000132,500
Engine Weight (lbs)148,000166,000104,400142,000166,000
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)90,000113,00079,800107,500144,000
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)238,000279,000184,200249,500310,000
Tender Water Capacity (gals)42005000370046007000
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)81071115
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)6371415874
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)6467556369
Boiler Pressure (psi)175190150185200
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)20" x 26"20" x 26"18" x 24"19" x 26"20" x 26"
Tractive Effort (lbs)24,17225,06918,02623,42825,623
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.72 5.11 4.08 4.44 5.17
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)14318660149175
Grate Area (sq ft)28331731.8031.50
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)19272272126919482270
Superheating Surface (sq ft)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)19272272126919482270
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume203.83240.32179.53228.31240.11
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation49006270255058836300
Same as above plus superheater percentage49006270255058836300
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area25,02535,340900027,56535,000
Power L152177186305261317651
Power MT302.67371.31274.26389.90381.91

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassG-6/500G-7G-8G-9
Locobase ID9940 9803 1098 9805
RailroadLouisville & Nashville (L&N)Louisville & Nashville (L&N)Louisville & Nashville (L&N)Louisville & Nashville (L&N)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-0
Number in Class1455
Road Numbers500/200/290/390391-394375-379230-284/280-284/380-384
GaugeStdStdStdStd
Number Built1455
BuilderBurnham, Williams & CoRichmondRogersCooke
Year1897189918901892
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft)13131313
Engine Wheelbase (ft)24.4224.1723.7523.75
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.53 0.54 0.55 0.55
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)49.0850.7150.71
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)38,40037,50040,000
Weight on Drivers (lbs)86,000109,200107,500113,500
Engine Weight (lbs)133,350130,000143,500149,000
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)83,00090,000113,000113,000
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)216,350220,000256,500262,000
Tender Water Capacity (gals)420050005000
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)81010
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)48616063
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)68646767
Boiler Pressure (psi)170175175175
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)18.5" x 26"19" x 26"20" x 24"20" x 24"
Tractive Effort (lbs)18,90921,81521,31321,313
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.55 5.01 5.04 5.33
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)138143173168
Grate Area (sq ft)22.50272726
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)1549168620951803
Superheating Surface (sq ft)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)1549168620951803
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume191.50197.61240.07206.61
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation3825472547254550
Same as above plus superheater percentage3825472547254550
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area23,46025,02530,27529,400
Power L15333525366285918
Power MT410.14318.16407.78344.85

Reference