Lehigh Valley 4-6-0 "Ten-wheeler" Locomotives of the USA


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class 708/J-43/J-51, J-52 (Locobase 12144)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Vol 19, p. 211. Works numbers were 14256-14260 in April 1895.

Locobase 12145 shows the half of this class that had 62" drivers. The design virtually duplicated the Eight-wheelers shown in Locobase 12143. Like the other


Class 713/J-42/J-49 (Locobase 12145)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Vol 19, p. 211. Works numbers were 14261-14265 in April 1895.

Four of the five locomotives in this Ten-wheeler quintet were rebuilt in 1903-1905 with cylinders using a 26" (660 mm) stroke; at that point they were redesignated J-49. 1350, 1382, and 1351 were scrapped in September 1925. 1352 was sent to the ferro-knacker in January 1930.

Locobase 12144 features the passenger engines with 68" drivers.


Class 753 / J-43, J-51, J-52 (Locobase 12206)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Vol 20, p. 159. Works numbers were 14921-14925 in June 1896.

Locobase estimates the direct heating surface as being a bit smaller than the otherwise identical camelback Ten-wheelers delivered in 1895 and described in Locobase 12144 because the depth of the massive firebox was 2" shorter in front and rear. Like the earlier engines, some of the 1896 locomotives were completed with the 68" drivers shown here; see Locobase 12205 for the much larger portion of the batch, which were delivered with 62" drivers.

The quintet was broken into three number groups: J-51 (1432-1434 for the first, second, and fifth) was rebuilt with 20x26 cylinders turning 69" drivers, had a boiler pressed to 175 psi, and an engine weight of 141,500 lb (64,183 kg); 1460--redesignated J-52--had similar cylinder dimensions, but had a 180-psi boiler, and an engine weight of 160,000 lb (72,575 kg). 1432-1433 were scrapped in August 1916, 1370 in June 1919, 1236 in September 1925, and 1434 in February 1930.


Class 758 / J-42, J-50 / J-49 (Locobase 12205)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Vol 20, p. 159. Works numbers were 14931-14937, 14946-14953 in July 1896,

As Locobase has noted in entry 12206, this class has an estimated direct heating surface of a few sq ft less than the 1895 counterparts shown in Locobase 12145. The boiler was smaller too because of the deletion of eight of the tubes. The two classes were otherwise identical.

Class shufflings that followed a rebuilding of the first half of the 15 62" drivered engines in 1906-1907; all but one became Class J-49. That one went in class J-50. The latter 8 were not rebuilt, but still were broken and renumbered .

With the exception of 1412 (ex-766), which was scrapped in September 1918, the class was scrapped in the mid-to-late 1920s with 1384 and 1373 (ex-758 and 760, respectively) being scrapped in January and February 1930.


Class 773 / J-52 (Locobase 12294)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Volume 21, p.253. Works numbers were 16032-16041 in July 1898..

Passenger camelbacks that operated for 30 years for the most part. Beginning in 1903, all were given 20x26 cylinders, 69" drivers, 180-psi boilers, and 160,000 lb (72,575 kg) engine weight.

For some reason, the last two in the batch (by then renumbered to 1457-1458) were the first to be scrapped in October 1917. Ex-776 (renumbered first 1248, then 1461) was scrapped a month later. Three were dismantled in the mid-1920s and the last 3 in 1928-1930.


Class J-1 (Locobase 8791)

Data from Railway Purchasing Agent, Vol VIII, No 8 (August 1885), p. 120. In its report to the American Railway Master Mechanics Association dated 30 April 1885, the Philadelphia & Reading Railroad described some new and quite large locomotives then being produced. Among them was this Ten-wheeler produced by the Lehigh Valley to the plans of their Master Mechanic David Clark.

Although designed to burn anthracite culm, this class used a conventional cab layout. Based on the roster reproduced on http://www.lvrrmodeler.net/steam (last accessed, 30 September 2007). 1004 was scrapped first in October 2006. 1001 went a year later, followed by two in 1908, and ending with 1002 in December 1909.

NB: Tube length is an estimate based on the calculation of tube surface area by subtracting reported firebox heating surface from reported total evaporative heating surface


Class J-25 (Locobase 7300)

Data from LV 3 - 1934 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. See also David Marcham, The Ups & Downs of a Rural Line (Ithaca, NY: DeWitt Historical Society, 2009).

Surprisingly light and small for the period, this class of Ten-wheelers came from the Sayre shops. They went into mixed-traffic service for several decades on the former Elmira, Cortland & Northern in south central New York State.

The first retired in 1940, the last in 1951.


Class J-54/A (Locobase 3935)

Shown in Railroad Gazette's last issue of the year in 1900 (Vol XXXII, No. 52), with weights raised by table in AERJ July 1903. (The RG article had lower weights, which may well have been estimates.) Works numbers were 18849-18851 in March 1901, 18885-18886 in April, and 19348-19349 in August.

This camelback was designed by Mechanical Engineer F F Gaines. Its charge was to haul 400 tons of passenger train over the division between Easton and Wilkes-Barre over a ruling grade of 1.15%. It combined the wide Wootten firebox for anthracite coal with the Vauclain four-cylinder compounding layout. Baldwin estimated tractive effort as 28,200 lb, divided nearly equally between HP (14,000 lb) and LP (14,200 lb)

A typical conversion to simple expansion came just five years after their delivery. They received two 20" x 26" (508 x 660 mm) cylinders and 73" (1,854 mm) drivers that generated 24,219 lb (10,986 kg). Engine weight came to 184,750 lb (83,801 kg). 1555 and 1551 were rebuilt by Baldwin as J-54A in January and November 1923, respectively. Requirements began in 1923 and were complete by 1929.


Class J-55 1/2 - 363 tubes (Locobase 7301)

Data from LV 3 - 1934 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. See also "Fast Freight Engine for the Lehigh Valley," Railway and Locomotive Engineering, Vol 17, No 11 (November 1904), p. 495, and "Ten-wheel Passenger Engine for the Lehigh Valley Railroad,"Railway and Locomotive Engineering, Vol 23, No 8 (August 1910), pp. 315-320.

This large class of camelback Ten-wheelers came from Baldwin and Alco and formed the underpinning for local passenger engines on the Lehigh Valley. Both Alco and Baldwin's 1905 orders (1001-1020 -- later 1601-1620 -- and 1650-1654) had 378 tubes and a total of 3,282 sq ft (304.9 sq m) of evaporative heating surface. 1907 engines had the 363 tubes shown in the specifications. Baldwin's last batch in 1910 was split between eight engines with Walschaert outside radial valve gear and two with Baker-Pilliod gear.

The 1910 R&LE report noted "Class J-55 has proved a highly successful engine in freight service on the more level portions of the line ....As the driving wheels are 69 inches, these engines are also adapted to heavy passenger service, and with this end in view, they have been fitted with train signal and steam heat equipment."

Many were superheated in the 1920s; see Locobase 7302.


Class J-55 1/2 - 378 tubes (Locobase 14415)

Data from LV 3 - 1934 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. See also "Heavy Ten-Wheel Locomotives for the Lehigh Valley," The Railroad Gazette, Vol XXXIX, No 17 (27 October 1905), p. 399 (Alco) and DeGolyer, Vol 27, p. 230 (Baldwin).

This large class of camelback Ten-wheelers came from Baldwin and Alco and formed the underpinning for local passenger engines on the Lehigh Valley. They were big, heavy engines as indicated by the RG report's comment on the Alcos: "This is well up in the upper limits of the weights imposed on driving wheels for passenger service and is probably close upon the point where a permanent set will be given to the rail or tire or both on account of weight."

1907 engines had 363 tubes; see Locobase 7301.

Many were superheated in the 1920s; see Locobase 7302.


Class J-55 1/2 - superheated (Locobase 7302)

Data from LV 3 - 1934 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

The large class of camelback Ten-wheelers described in Locobase 7301 came in for a superheater upgrade in the 1920s. 172 of the 2" tubes were removed to allow for 24 superheater flues.


Class J-56/J-56 1/J-57 (Locobase 7303)

Data from LV 3 - 1934 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

Conventional-firebox Ten-wheelers originally built in 1911-1912 with 23" cylinders. Like its J-55 stablemates, some of these engines saw their cylinders bushed to 21" to better accommodate the boiler's capacity. When the railroad started superheating locomotives in 1916, these engines were modified as shown in the specs. A very few retained their 23" cylinders and received identical boilers.


Class Maine / J-39 (Locobase 11661)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Vol 14, p.81. Works numbers were 8944-8946, 8949, 8952 in December 1887.

The LV was ordering big Ten-wheelers for the time. This conventional-cab quintet followed an earlier set built at the Lehigh's Sayre Shops (Locobase 8791) and bore the names of New England states: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island.

All served for more than 3 decades. 1185 (ex-Rhode Island) was scrapped first in February 1909. 1181 went next in October 1912, followed by 1182 in May 1913, 1184 in November 1913, and finally 1183 in September 1915.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Class708/J-43/J-51, J-52713/J-42/J-49753 / J-43, J-51, J-52758 / J-42, J-50 / J-49773 / J-52
Locobase ID12,144 12,145 12,206 12,205 12,294
RailroadLehigh Valley (LV)Lehigh Valley (LV)Lehigh Valley (LV)Lehigh Valley (LV)Lehigh Valley (LV)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-0
Number in Class5551510
Road Numbers708-712713-717/1350, 1382, 1351-1352753-757758-772773-782 / 1452-1459, 1248-1249
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built5551510
BuilderBurnham, Williams & CoBurnham, Williams & CoBurnham, Williams & CoBurnham, Williams & CoBurnham, Williams & Co
Year18951895189618961898
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft)1212121212
Engine Wheelbase (ft)22.9222.9222.9222.9222.92
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.52 0.52 0.52 0.52 0.52
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)51
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)
Weight on Drivers (lbs)100,000100,000106,000106,000114,000
Engine Weight (lbs)130,000130,000136,000136,000144,000
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)84,00084,000
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)220,000220,000
Tender Water Capacity (gals)40004000400040004000
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)5656595963
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)6862686268
Boiler Pressure (psi)160160160160180
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)20" x 24"20" x 24"20" x 24"20" x 24"20" x 24"
Tractive Effort (lbs)19,20021,05819,20021,05821,600
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 5.21 4.75 5.52 5.03 5.28
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)157157150150152.50
Grate Area (sq ft)6767676776.32
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)19151915186218622109
Superheating Surface (sq ft)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)19151915186218622109
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume219.44219.44213.37213.37241.67
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation10,72010,72010,72010,72013,738
Same as above plus superheater percentage10,72010,72010,72010,72013,738
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area25,12025,12024,00024,00027,450
Power L156105115542849496713
Power MT371.04338.30338.68308.79389.46

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassJ-1J-25J-54/AJ-55 1/2 - 363 tubesJ-55 1/2 - 378 tubes
Locobase ID8791 7300 3935 7301 14,415
RailroadLehigh Valley (LV)Lehigh Valley (LV)Lehigh Valley (LV)Lehigh Valley (LV)Lehigh Valley (LV)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-0
Number in Class53576540
Road Numbers58, 130, 133-135/1000-10041131-1165783-789/1550-15561590-1694
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built53576540
BuilderLV-Wilke BarreLV-SayreBurnham, Williams & Coseveralseveral
Year18851917190119071904
Valve GearBakerStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft)12.171313.3313.33
Engine Wheelbase (ft)2425.2925.3325.33
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.51 0.51 0.53 0.53
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)60.1852.5765.5765.57
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)35,50053,70053,700
Weight on Drivers (lbs)92,000104,500141,348154,000150,200
Engine Weight (lbs)109,600137,000194,758203,000199,200
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)55,000105,15096,500155,200155,200
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)164,600242,150291,258358,200354,400
Tender Water Capacity (gals)4500450080008000
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)10101212
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)5158798683
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)63726968.50
Boiler Pressure (psi)140190200205205
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)20" x 26"20" x 24"17" x 26"21" x 28"21" x 28"
Low Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)28" x 26"
Tractive Effort (lbs)24,61025,92631,18331,411
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.25 5.45 4.94 4.78
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)173150171.71199199.98
Grate Area (sq ft)4037.8071.2585.0885.08
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)20631717270831593284
Superheating Surface (sq ft)332
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)20632049270831593284
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume218.22196.75396.46281.43292.57
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation5600718214,25017,44117,441
Same as above plus superheater percentage5600833114,25017,44117,441
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area24,22033,06034,34240,79540,996
Power L112,471461987258932
Power MT789.30216.13374.71393.31

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassJ-55 1/2 - superheatedJ-56/J-56 1/J-57Maine / J-39
Locobase ID7302 7303 11,661
RailroadLehigh Valley (LV)Lehigh Valley (LV)Lehigh Valley (LV)
CountryUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-04-6-0
Number in Class74205
Road Numbers1800-1820466-470 / 1181-1185
GaugeStdStdStd
Number Built5
BuildershopsLVBurnham, Parry, Williams & Co
Year192219161887
Valve GearWalschaertWalschaertStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft)13.3314.0811.67
Engine Wheelbase (ft)25.3326.0823.50
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.53 0.54 0.50
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)65.5767.24
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)55,19453,975
Weight on Drivers (lbs)154,964150,67490,000
Engine Weight (lbs)207,234202,050110,000
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)155,200142,700
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)362,434344,750
Tender Water Capacity (gals)800070003000
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)1212
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)868450
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)696354
Boiler Pressure (psi)205200130
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)21" x 28"23" x 28"20" x 24"
Tractive Effort (lbs)31,18339,96919,644
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.97 3.77 4.58
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)199188161.71
Grate Area (sq ft)85.0857.1039.40
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)237025661904
Superheating Surface (sq ft)493530
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)286330961904
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume211.14190.58218.18
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation17,44111,4205122
Same as above plus superheater percentage20,40613,3615122
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area47,73043,99221,022
Power L116,38612,9083637
Power MT699.35566.60267.27

Photos

Reference


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