Maine Central / Somerset / Washington County 4-6-0 "Ten-wheeler" Locomotives of the USA


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class 20 / G (Locobase 12815)

Data from DeGolyer, Volume 28, p 78. See also Walter Marshall MacDougall, The old Somerset railroad: a lifeline for northern Mainers (Camden, ME: Down East Books, 2000) and an extended description of the route at Locobase 11434. Works numbers were 26269-26270 in August 1905.

MacDougall places this pair of Ten-wheelers at the top of the scale for size and weight. They were bought, he says, to handle the grades above Bingham. Welcome as they were, the engines "...were ten feet longer than the biggest engines on the road. New additions had to be tacked onto the engine houses, and the turntables were extended." Pointing out that that was "no small job" and probably included constructing new pits of poured concrete. (p. 174).

But the two were quite a bit smaller than other standard-gauge Ten-wheelers, but served the Somerset for decades. After the Maine Central took over in 1911 (with 982 new rules for SRR hands to follow), the 20 and 21 were placed in class G and renumbered 106-107.

106 was scrapped in June 1930. MacDougall writes that Somerset Branch remained healthy into the 1930s, but MEC management were not inclined to maintain service. Thus passenger service north of Bingham ceased in 1932 past Bingham Heights and on 22 July 1933, the last train to Oakland ran. The 107 was scrapped by the MEC in May 1935.


Class 22/G (Locobase 11433)

Data from "Locomotive Building," The Railroad Gazette, Vol XLI, No 9 (31 August 1906), p. 56. See also DeGolyer, Vol 27, p. 78. Works numbers were 41436-41437.

See the description of the railway in Locobase 11434.


Class 4 (Locobase 2983)

Data from 1899 Brooks catalogue.

Builder info from B.Rumary, 25 Kingscombe, Gurney Slade, Radstock, BA3 4TH, ENGLAND and Jeremy Lambert as supplied by Allen Stanley in March 2004. Works #2943-2947, produced in April 1898.

See Locobase 2151 for a short history of this Maine shortline.

In the same month as the three 4-4-0s (1-3) were produced for the WCRR, this quintet of Ten-wheelers also came to life. They apparently shared the same firebox and had the same number of fire tubes as the Americans, which they immediately preceded on Brooks' Dunkirk factory floor.

Unlike the 4-4-0s, however, three of these freight locomotives served Maine for almost 40 years and one fell just short of 50 years.

Road # Year Changed to new # MEC Scrapped

4 31 in Aug 1906 110 Nov 1918

5 32 in April 1906 112 Mar 1935

6 33 in Mar 1906 113 Feb 1935

7 34 in April 1905 114 June 1947

8 35 in April 1907 115 Aug 1935


Class G (Locobase 7308)

Data from MEC 2 - 1923 and MEC & PTC 7- 1947 Maine Central locomotive diagrams supplied by Allen Stanley in May 2005 from his extensive Raildata collection. Works numbers were 2943-2947.

Interesting small Ten-wheelers supplied to the MEC before the turn into the 20th Century. Locobase isn't certain what happened to three of the class, but finds in the 1947 diagram a notation that 114 was scrapped in June 1947.

NB: Tube length is an estimate based on the calculation of tube surface area by subtracting reported firebox heating surface from reported total evaporative heating surface.


Class N-275 (Locobase 7056)

Data from MEC 2 - 1923 and MEC & PTC 7- 1947 Maine Central locomotive diagrams supplied by Allen Stanley in May 2005 from his extensive Raildata collection.

MEC passenger power expanded with the acquisition of these Ten-wheelers at the turn of the century. Schenectady delivered them in small batches in a sequence that coincided with the merger of several builders into the American Locomotive Company. The first 4 were Schenectady builder's numbers 4965-4966 & 5359-5360, the next 3 -- 1901 -- had numbers 6066-6068. Two years later, the last two were amalgamated builder's numbers 27660-27661.

All but 282 were superheated, according to the 1923 book, but none of the engines are credited with superheater in the 1947 edition. Possibly the superheaters had been removed.


Class N-283 (Locobase 7055)

Data from 1923 and 1924 Maine Central locomotive diagrams supplied by Allen Stanley in May 2005 from his extensive Raildata collection.

These were the later of the Alco Ten-wheelers used in the MEC's passenger service. In addition to adding 2" of stroke to the earlier cylinder outfit, the class also had taller drivers. 288-289 had 19 1/2"-diameter cylinders, which increase tractive effort to 23,000 lb. They were delivered in pairs as indicated by their builder's numbers: 29723-29724, 30450-30451, 40081-40082.

Of the six in the class the first to retire was the 286, which was scrapped in April 1937. 285 and 288 were withdrawn in September 1938. The other three served throughout World War II.


Class O - 351 (Locobase 7057)

Data from MEC 2 - 1923 and MEC & PTC 7- 1947 Maine Central locomotive diagrams supplied by Allen Stanley in May 2005 from his extensive Raildata collection. Works numbers were 27657-27659 and 29029-29030 in 1903) and 30323-30326, 38170-38173 in 1905.

Mixed-traffic engines like these Ten-wheelers were often the backbone of a small system's locomotive stud. Compared to other turn-of-the-century 4-6-0s, these locomotives had big boilers and grates, but a relatively low amount of direct heating surface.

This entry refers to the first thirteen, which had Stephenson valve gear. Schenectady supplied its production in small batches.

See Locobase 7058 for the Walschaert engines, which were built by Rhode Island.

All of this class were superheated beginning in 1916; see Locobase 15894.


Class O-1 (Locobase 7058)

Data from MEC 2 - 1923 and MEC & PTC 7- 1947 Maine Central locomotive diagrams supplied by Allen Stanley in May 2005 from his extensive Raildata collection. Works numbers were 40576-40579 and 41235-41239.

Mixed-traffic engines like these Ten-wheelers were often the backbone of a small system's locomotive stud. This entry refers to the Walschaert engines delivered by the Ocean State's own Rhode Island Locomotive Works. 7057 shows the Schenectadies delivered with Stephenson link motion.

These may have been the engines that were originally intended for the Pittsburg, Binghamton & Eastern, a Bradford, Pa county railroad that encountered too many vicissitudes to ever actually begin serving any customers. (See Eleanor Parsons Keagle, "The PB & E-The Railroad That Never Ran", Elmira (NY) Telegram , 8 August 1955, hosted on Joyce M Tice's Tri-Counties Genealogy & History website (http://www.joycetice.com/articles/pbrailr.htm, last accessed 10 July 2010).

All of this class were superheated beginning in 1916; see Locobase 15894.

The lower-numbered Stephenson-gear engines are shown in Locobase 7058.


Class O-1, O-2 superheated (Locobase 15894)

Data from MEC 2 - 1923 and MEC & PTC 7- 1947 Maine Central locomotive diagrams supplied by Allen Stanley in May 2005 and Dole's Maine Central Roster summary supplied in August 2013 from his extensive Raildata collection.

Locobases 7057-7059 show the large stud of saturated-boiler Ten-wheelers as they were delivered in 1903 and 1907. Beginning in 1916, but applied to most locomotives in the mid-1920s, the MEC superheated the entire class to the same standard. The initial makeover was confined to the usual subtraction of small tubes to make way for superheater flues. Later, the railroad removed all of the arch tubes and installed two thermic syphons in the firebox. This added 51 sq ft (4.75 sq m) to the firebox heating surface area and raised it to 228 sq ft (21.2 sq m).

375 and 377 were scrapped in February 1939 while the others carried on through World War II. 381-382 went next in April 1947, 374 was scrapped in October, 376 followed almost 3 years later in June 1950. More than three years after that 380 (October) and 373, 379 (November) were sent to the boneyard.


Class O-2 (Locobase 7059)

Data from MEC 2 - 1923 and MEC & PTC 7- 1947 Maine Central locomotive diagrams supplied by Allen Stanley in May 2005 from his extensive Raildata collection. Works numbers were 32267-32268, 32304 in November 1907; 32344, 32395, 32428 in December; 32566, 32575, 32644 in January 1908; and 32675 in February.

As the MEC added mixed-traffic Ten-wheelers, they went to several builders. Alco's Schenectady Works locomotives are shown in Locobase 7057. Those of the Rhode Island Works (also part of Alco by this time) appear in Locobase 7058.

In 1907, Baldwin added ten to the stud that had more but shorter boiler tubes. As a result, heating surface amounted to a little less than the Alcos.

All were superheated by the Maine Central beginning in 1916; see Locobase 15894.


Class O-3 (Locobase 7060)

Data from MEC 2 - 1923 and MEC & PTC 7- 1947 Maine Central locomotive diagrams supplied by Allen Stanley in May 2005 from his extensive Raildata collection. Works numbers were 59050-59057 in 1917 and 62051-62054 in 1920.

A full decade after the last of the previous orders for Ten-wheelers had been delivered to the MEC (Locobase 7059), the railroad ordered eight more in 1917and followed these with four more in 1920 . The first eight may be credited to the exigencies of wartime, but the last quartet probably reflect more the relatively modest size of the MEC's mixed-traffic trains.

In addition to more adhesion weight (and engine weight, too), the new purchases featured larger cylinders, lower boiler pressure, an installed superheater, and taller drivers. Note as well the use of a third valve-gear design, the Baker gear on this group joining the earlier Stephenson link and Walschaert radial valve gears. Arch tubes contributed 26 sq ft (2.4 sq m) to the firebox heating surface.


Class O-4 (Locobase 15895)

Data from Dole's Maine Central roster supplied by Allen Stanley in August 2013 from his extensive Raildata collection. Works numbers were 6482-6489 in May 1923.

From the relatively large Ten-wheelers Baldwin produced for the MEC in 1917, the railroad turned to Lima for lighter, somewhat less powerful 4-6-0s after World War One. They operated on the more lightly built sections east of Bangor, although even these engines had average axle loadings over 45,000 lb (20,412 kg).

All remained in service on the MEC throughout World War Two. Retirements and scrapping began in June 1949 and ended in December 1952.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Class20 / G22/G4GN-275
Locobase ID12815 11433 2983 7308 7056
RailroadSomerset (MEC)Somerset (MEC)Washington County (MEC)Maine Central (MEC)Maine Central (MEC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-0
Number in Class22549
Road Numbers20-2122-23/108-1094-8 / 31-35 / 110, 112-1531-35/110, 112-115275-283
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built22549
BuilderBurnham, Williams & CoAlco-ManchesterBrooksBrooksAlco-Schenectady
Year19051907189818981899
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase10.08'13.50'13.50'14'
Engine Wheelbase20'23.33'23.33'24.17'
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.50 0.58 0.58 0.58
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender)50.09'40.33'51.50'
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle)
Weight on Drivers78000 lbs87500 lbs94400 lbs94000 lbs107000 lbs
Engine Weight104000 lbs113000 lbs118800 lbs118000 lbs140600 lbs
Tender Light Weight76000 lbs78000 lbs84000 lbs85000 lbs108700 lbs
Total Engine and Tender Weight180000 lbs191000 lbs202800 lbs203000 lbs249300 lbs
Tender Water Capacity3600 gals3800 gals4000 gals4000 gals5000 gals
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal)6 tons8.5 tons8.5 tons9 tons
Minimum weight of rail (calculated)43 lb/yard49 lb/yard52 lb/yard52 lb/yard59 lb/yard
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter54"55"56"57"69"
Boiler Pressure180 psi180 psi180 psi170 psi200 psi
Cylinders (dia x stroke)18" x 24"18" x 24"18" x 24"18" x 24"19" x 24"
Tractive Effort22032 lbs21631 lbs21245 lbs19713 lbs21346 lbs
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 3.54 4.05 4.44 4.77 5.01
Heating Ability
Firebox Area105.80 sq. ft134 sq. ft132.40 sq. ft139.40 sq. ft
Grate Area24.10 sq. ft23.70 sq. ft21.80 sq. ft22 sq. ft27.30 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface1416 sq. ft1620 sq. ft1608 sq. ft1606 sq. ft2089 sq. ft
Superheating Surface
Combined Heating Surface1416 sq. ft1620 sq. ft1608 sq. ft1606 sq. ft2089 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume200.32229.18227.49227.20265.24
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation43384266392437405460
Same as above plus superheater percentage43384266392437405460
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area190440241202250827880
Power L144580541451828136
Power MT378.010379.32364.61502.90

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassN-283O - 351O-1O-1, O-2 superheatedO-2
Locobase ID7055 7057 7058 15894 7059
RailroadMaine Central (MEC)Maine Central (MEC)Maine Central (MEC)Maine Central (MEC)Maine Central (MEC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-0
Number in Class41393310
Road Numbers284-287, 288-289351-363364-372350-382373-382
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built4131310
BuilderAlco-SchenectadyAlco-SchenectadyAlco-Rhode IslandMECBurnham, Williams & Co
Year19041903190619161907
Valve GearStephensonStephensonWalschaertWalschaertWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase13'14.83'14.83'14.83'14.83'
Engine Wheelbase33.67'25.83'25.83'25.83'25.83'
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.39 0.57 0.57 0.57 0.57
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender)67'54.58'54.58'54.58'55'
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle)
Weight on Drivers116650 lbs130100 lbs134500 lbs131600 lbs138300 lbs
Engine Weight156000 lbs171300 lbs172000 lbs182800 lbs182800 lbs
Tender Light Weight132000 lbs113400 lbs113400 lbs115400 lbs115000 lbs
Total Engine and Tender Weight288000 lbs284700 lbs285400 lbs298200 lbs297800 lbs
Tender Water Capacity6000 gals5400 gals5400 gals6000 gals5500 gals
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal)11 tons10 tons10 tons10 tons10 tons
Minimum weight of rail (calculated)65 lb/yard72 lb/yard75 lb/yard73 lb/yard77 lb/yard
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter73"63"63"63"63"
Boiler Pressure200 psi200 psi200 psi200 psi200 psi
Cylinders (dia x stroke)19" x 26"21" x 26"21" x 26"21" x 26"21" x 26"
Tractive Effort21858 lbs30940 lbs30940 lbs30940 lbs30940 lbs
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 5.34 4.20 4.35 4.25 4.47
Heating Ability
Firebox Area115.70 sq. ft177.20 sq. ft177.20 sq. ft206 sq. ft160 sq. ft
Grate Area40.50 sq. ft46 sq. ft46 sq. ft45 sq. ft45 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface2170 sq. ft3053 sq. ft3053 sq. ft2284 sq. ft2972 sq. ft
Superheating Surface450 sq. ft
Combined Heating Surface2170 sq. ft3053 sq. ft3053 sq. ft2734 sq. ft2972 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume254.33292.91292.91219.13285.14
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation81009200920090009000
Same as above plus superheater percentage810092009200104409000
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area2314035440354404779232000
Power L1783979367936148377600
Power MT444.46403.44390.24745.67363.45

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassO-3O-4
Locobase ID7060 15895
RailroadMaine Central (MEC)Maine Central (MEC)
CountryUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-0
Number in Class128
Road Numbers401-412383-390
GaugeStdStd
Number Built128
BuilderAlco-SchenectadyLima
Year19181923
Valve GearBakerBaker
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase14.83'14.83'
Engine Wheelbase25.83'25.83'
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.57 0.57
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender)62'58.46'
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle)
Weight on Drivers156000 lbs136000 lbs
Engine Weight206500 lbs182000 lbs
Tender Light Weight145000 lbs137000 lbs
Total Engine and Tender Weight351500 lbs319000 lbs
Tender Water Capacity7500 gals6500 gals
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal)11 tons10 tons
Minimum weight of rail (calculated)87 lb/yard76 lb/yard
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter67"63"
Boiler Pressure190 psi200 psi
Cylinders (dia x stroke)22" x 28"20" x 28"
Tractive Effort32666 lbs30222 lbs
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.78 4.50
Heating Ability
Firebox Area189 sq. ft165 sq. ft
Grate Area45 sq. ft44.70 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface2334 sq. ft2005 sq. ft
Superheating Surface529 sq. ft440 sq. ft
Combined Heating Surface2863 sq. ft2445 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume189.46196.93
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation85508940
Same as above plus superheater percentage1008910549
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area4237438940
Power L11384714005
Power MT587.06681.08

Reference


If you have any railroad data such as diagram books, rail station plans or anything else that you would be willing to share, please contact us.