Norfolk & Western 4-6-0 "Ten-wheeler" Locomotives of the USA

Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class A (Locobase 12589)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Volume 24, 160. Works numbers were 20007-20010 in January 1902.

The specs for these passenger Ten-wheelers show that the design used the same boiler and firebox as the V-class 2-8-0s from the year before (Locobase 12418), but the tubes were longer by 8 1/2". The N & W specified that like the Vs, the 9 1/2" piston valves in the A class should be set to provide no lead in full gear. Locobase notes too that they had a relatively long travel of 6 1/2".

The quartet does not ever seem to have been superheated. All were scrapped in September 1928.

Class D (Locobase 9714)

Data from Angus Sinclair, "Ratio of Heating Surface to Grate Area and Cylinder Volume," Locomotive Engineering, Volume X, No. 4 (April 1897), pp. 316-318. Works numbers were 4225, 4230, 4232-4233 in December 1889; 4307-4308 in May 1890, 4316-4318 in June; 4489-4492 in March 1891.

These were relatively low-drivered passenger Ten-wheelers on the N&W. The entire class remained intact until 1912 when the 41 was sold in December to the Winston-Salem South Bound, which kept its road number. Almost all of the rest were retired in March 1916 with 40 and 45 surviving until October 1923.

Class U (Locobase 12038)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Vol 17, p. 233 and Vol 18, p.50. Works numbers were 12592, 12594, 12602-12603, 12608 in April 1892; 12894-12898 in August; 12902-12904, 12907, 12914 in September.

Passenger-service Vauclain compound Ten-wheelers came onto the N & W with this order. they were rebuilt in 1902 with simple-expansion 20" x 24" cylinders.

71 was sold to the Winston Salem Southbound on January 1920; she was joined by 78 in July. The WSSB extended the Roanoke-Winston Salem line south along the Yadkin River. these two Ten-wheeler contributed passenger and mixed-train power until the line was closed to passenger traffic in 1933.

All of the rest of the class were scrapped in 1923 except for 81 in December 1924 and 74-75 in September 1933.

Class V (Locobase 12418)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Volume 23 p. 40. See also Frederick M Whyte "The Confusion of Types ", American Engineering and Railroad Journal, Volume 74, No 12 (December 1900), p.374. See the noted railroad engineer J Snowden Bell's emphatic approval of the scheme in "Locomotive Classification", AERJ, Volume 75, No 1 (January 1901), p. 21; an alternative that includes tender notation by G S Edmonds of the Delaware & Hudson (same issue, same page), and Whyte's further elucidation in "Logical Locomotive Types," AERJ, Volume 75, No 2 (February 1901), p. 54-56. Works numbers were 17747-17748 in May 1900; 18232-18235, 18266-18267 in September; 18301-18302, 18315-18316 in October.

These Consolidations had 9 1/2" piston valves that had no lead in full gear and relatively long strokes of 6 5/16".

Note: At about the same time as these engines were produced, the AERJ printed a brief summary of Frederick Methvan Whyte's proposal for a clearer way to describe steam locomotive wheel arrangements. Its logic spread quickly and within a few years, most English-speaking journals used his system to describe running gear layouts.

Locobase 7822 shows the result of fitting new, taller 62" drivers to the class not long after they arrived.

Class V1 (Locobase 7822)

Data from N&W 3-1955 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

Among the few Ten-wheeler classes operated by the N & W, this class had 9 1/2"piston valves and a good-sized boiler. Although procured as a fast-freight engines, they spent most of their career in light-passenger and mixed-traffic service. They were joined by the 12 V-class freighters described in Locobase 12418.

The 957 and 959 were the first to go to the scrapyard in August 1929 followed shortly by 955 and 958 in October. Most of the rest were broken up by World War II. Of the few remaining, 954 and 956 lasted the longest before being scrapped in April 1950.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Locobase ID12,589 9714 12,038 12,418 7822
RailroadNorfolk & Western (N&W)Norfolk & Western (N&W)Norfolk & Western (N&W)Norfolk & Western (N&W)Norfolk & Western (N&W)
Number in Class413151217
Road Numbers86-8938-41, 206-210, 401-404/38-5071-85950-961962-966
Number Built41315125
BuilderBurnham, Williams & CoshopsBurnham, Williams & CoBurnham, Williams & CoAlco-Richmond
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft)13.1212.5012.5012.50
Engine Wheelbase (ft)24.3723.8723.7523.75
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.54 0.52 0.53 0.53
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)49.6649.6754.91
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)44,500
Weight on Drivers (lbs)123,00097,800117,000128,025
Engine Weight (lbs)158,000123,800152,000162,350
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)167,500
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)329,850
Tender Water Capacity (gals)5000360050009000
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)14
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)68546571
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)6860685662
Boiler Pressure (psi)200155200200200
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)20" x 28"19" x 24"14" x 24"19.5" x 28"19.5" x 28"
Low Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)24" x 24"
Tractive Effort (lbs)28,00019,02517,54932,32129,193
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.39 5.14 3.62 4.39
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)180151154180183
Grate Area (sq ft)32.602923.9032.4032.60
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)25591928197724592403
Superheating Surface (sq ft)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)25591928197724592403
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume251.35244.80462.34254.07248.28
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation65204495478064806520
Same as above plus superheater percentage65204495478064806520
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area36,00023,40530,80036,00036,600
Power L177015280495564787085
Power MT414.09357.07366.19366.02

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