Chicago & West Michigan / Detroit, Grand Rapids & Western / Flint & Pere Marquette / Pere Marquette 4-6-0 "Ten-wheeler" Locomotives of the USA


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class T (Locobase 9261)

Data from PM 3 1929 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. Roster information developed by Art Million and Tom Dixon and presented on the Pere Marquette Historical Society website (http://www.pmhistsoc.org/stmrostr.shtml, accessed 1 March 2008). The diagrams show that the class arrived in two batches: works #25514-25523 arrived in 1902, 27642-27645 in 1903.

Two years after the PM was formed out of several Michigan railroads, the new company purchase a relatively large number of these Ten-wheelers. Four of the 14 had 67" drivers, the other 10 turned the 63" wheels shown in the specifications. These were still pretty small 4-6-0s, particularly for the time and compact of wheelbase too, although their fireboxes were relatively large and included 14 sq ft of arch tubes in the heating surface. But Brooks would deliver larger ones in the same period; see Locobase 9262-9264.


Class T1 (Locobase 9266)

Data from PM 3 1929 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. Roster information developed by Art Million and Tom Dixon and presented on the Pere Marquette Historical Society website (http://www.pmhistsoc.org/stmrostr.shtml, accessed 1 March 2008). Works numbers were 5075-5076 in 1899.

Freight Ten-wheelers from New York that fell on the small side, but had relatively large fireboxes riding over the driving axles. They used saturated steam right up to retirement in 1928.


Class T2 (Locobase 9268)

Data from PM 3 1929 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. Roster information developed by Art Million and Tom Dixon and presented on the Pere Marquette Historical Society website (http://www.pmhistsoc.org/stmrostr.shtml, accessed 1 March 2008).

A pair of Ten-wheelers that came from New Hampshire (works #1015-1016) to offer mixed-traffice service to the DGR&w and the PM. The latter retired the duo relatively early in 1915.


Class T3 (Locobase 9267)

Data from PM 3 1929 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. Roster information developed by Art Million and Tom Dixon and presented on the Pere Marquette Historical Society website (http://www.pmhistsoc.org/stmrostr.shtml, accessed 1 March 2008).

Ocean-state Ten-wheelers (works #2719-2724) that were small even for the early 1890s, but which rode lightly and served the C & WM and the PM until the late 1920s.


Class T3 (Locobase 9270)

Data from PM 3 1929 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. Roster information developed by Art Million and Tom Dixon and presented on the Pere Marquette Historical Society website (http://www.pmhistsoc.org/stmrostr.shtml, accessed 1 March 2008).

As with so many other locomotives of the period, these Dunkirk, NY engines somehow seem more modern than those of other builders of the time. They had big, relatively shallow fireboxes with plenty of direct heating surface.


Class T3 (Locobase 9272)

Data from PM 3 1929 Locomotive Diagrams and Connelly's Baldwin records supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. Roster information developed by Art Million and Tom Dixon and presented on the Pere Marquette Historical Society website (http://www.pmhistsoc.org/stmrostr.shtml, accessed 1 March 2008) and

Compared to other Pere Marquette Ten-wheelers, this engine (works #1552) had a relatively short wheelbase devoted to adhesion or, looked at the other way, a long stride for its adhesion wheelbase. Otherwise, this was a typical freight 4-6-0 that served for about 30 years.


Class T4 (Locobase 9269)

Data from PM 3 1929 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. Roster information developed by Art Million and Tom Dixon and presented on the Pere Marquette Historical Society website (http://www.pmhistsoc.org/stmrostr.shtml, accessed 1 March 2008).

Identical to the two Ten-wheelers with 57" drivers (Locobase 9268), this third engine (works #4795) went into mixed-traffic service where its taller drivers would have allowed higher speeds but generated less tractive effort. Like many of the PM locomotives inherited from predecessor roads, 164 was retired in the late 1920s.


Class T4 (Locobase 9271)

Data from PM 3 1929 Locomotive Diagrams and Connelly's Baldwin records supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. Roster information developed by Art Million and Tom Dixon and presented on the Pere Marquette Historical Society website (http://www.pmhistsoc.org/stmrostr.shtml, accessed 1 March 2008) and

If you dig into this locomotive's past through Connelly's Baldwin records, you discover that it came to the F & PM with another engine in 1878 (works #4486-4487, engine numbers 45-46). It's hard to tell whether both were originally Moguls or one was a Mogul and the other was a Ten-wheeler. Locobase suspects the former was true, because when 46 was rebuilt in 1896, its firebox remained unchanged and had a very high ratio of total heating surface to grate area. This indicates installation of longer boiler tubes for more heating surface as well as the likely reason for its early scrapping in 1913.


Class TA (Locobase 9263)

Data from PM 3 1929 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. Roster information developed by Art Million and Tom Dixon and presented on the Pere Marquette Historical Society website (http://www.pmhistsoc.org/stmrostr.shtml, accessed 1 March 2008). The diagrams show that the class arrived in two batches: works #25514-25523 arrived in 1902, 27642-27645 in 1903.

Later in 1903, the PM added to its newRaildata collection of Ten-wheelers with these passenger engines (works #29395-29400) that probably had a similar, if not identical, boiler to the TAs delivered earlier. Sometime later, superheaters added to the power implicit in the large firebox (which included 17 sq ft of arch tubes). Of all the PM's 4-6-0s, these lasted longest, some serving until 1935.


Class TB (Locobase 9264)

Data from PM 3 1929 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. Roster information developed by Art Million and Tom Dixon and presented on the Pere Marquette Historical Society website (http://www.pmhistsoc.org/stmrostr.shtml, accessed 1 March 2008).

The works numbers -- 26865-26866 -- show these to have been built between the two batches of small T-class engines (Locobase 9262). The pair were freight engines, but had bigger boilers and quite a sizable firebox that included 17 sq ft of arch tubes. The PM later superheated this class to essentially the same design as the TAs (Locobase 9262), but somehow managed to trim the weight off to the point that these weighed 4 1/2 tons less than the TAs.


Class TC (Locobase 9262)

Data from PM 3 1929 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. Roster information developed by Art Million and Tom Dixon and presented on the Pere Marquette Historical Society website (http://www.pmhistsoc.org/stmrostr.shtml, accessed 1 March 2008).

Even as the nascent PM was taking delivery of 14 small Ten-wheelers (Locobase 9261), it was also procuring 13 of the larger engines shown in this entry. Works numbers for these low-drivered versions (187-189 had 63" drivers as shown in the specs, 1901-191 had 61" drivers) ran 27179-27183, which put them between the two batches of Ts. They had relatively big fireboxes whose heating surface area included 17 sq ft of arch tubes.

The TAs shown in Locobase 9263 were of a more passenger-oriented nature.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassTT1T2T3T3
Locobase ID9261 9266 9268 9267 9270
RailroadPere Marquette (PM)Chicago & West Michigan (PM)Detroit, Grand Rapids & Western (PM)Chicago & West Michigan (PM)Flint & Pere Marquette (PM)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-0
Number in Class142267
Road Numbers150-159, 183-186165-166162-163176-181167-173
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built142267
BuilderAlcoSchenectadyManchesterRhode IslandBrooks
Year19021899189818921897
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase13.50'14.42'14.50'14.42'13.50'
Engine Wheelbase23.67'24.42'25'24.92'23.42'
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.57 0.59 0.58 0.58 0.58
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender)50.85'49.17'48.42'48.87'49.12'
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle)
Weight on Drivers101850 lbs83800 lbs79000 lbs82000 lbs92700 lbs
Engine Weight135350 lbs112600 lbs110000 lbs108000 lbs117500 lbs
Tender Light Weight110800 lbs80800 lbs91000 lbs74000 lbs78600 lbs
Total Engine and Tender Weight246150 lbs193400 lbs201000 lbs182000 lbs196100 lbs
Tender Water Capacity4500 gals3500 gals4000 gals3500 gals3650 gals
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal)14 tons10 tons9.5 tons9 tons10 tons
Minimum weight of rail (calculated)57 lb/yard47 lb/yard44 lb/yard46 lb/yard52 lb/yard
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter63"57"63"57"57"
Boiler Pressure200 psi180 psi180 psi160 psi160 psi
Cylinders (dia x stroke)18" x 24"18" x 24"18" x 24"18" x 24"18" x 24"
Tractive Effort20983 lbs20872 lbs18885 lbs18553 lbs18553 lbs
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.85 4.01 4.18 4.42 5.00
Heating Ability
Firebox Area180 sq. ft152 sq. ft156 sq. ft130 sq. ft146 sq. ft
Grate Area29.20 sq. ft18.70 sq. ft18.30 sq. ft19.10 sq. ft21.80 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface1879 sq. ft1732 sq. ft1664 sq. ft1513 sq. ft1428 sq. ft
Superheating Surface
Combined Heating Surface1879 sq. ft1732 sq. ft1664 sq. ft1513 sq. ft1428 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume265.82245.03235.41214.05202.02
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation58403366329430563488
Same as above plus superheater percentage58403366329430563488
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area3600027360280802080023360
Power L182566029653546514640
Power MT536.12475.83547.11375.13331.05

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassT3T4T4TATB
Locobase ID9272 9269 9271 9263 9264
RailroadFlint & Pere Marquette (PM)Chicago & West Michigan (PM)Flint & Pere Marquette (PM)Pere Marquette (PM)Pere Marquette (PM)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-0
Number in Class12162
Road Numbers47 / 17516446 / 174192-197198-199
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built1262
BuilderPittsburghSchenectadyF&PMAlcoAlco
Year18981898189619031903
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase11.06'14.42'14.75'14.50'14.50'
Engine Wheelbase21.41'24.42'24.73'24.75'24.83'
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.52 0.59 0.60 0.59 0.58
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender)48.17'49.17'48.17'54.87'52.18'
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle)
Weight on Drivers95500 lbs83800 lbs82000 lbs126000 lbs117000 lbs
Engine Weight119700 lbs112600 lbs113250 lbs160000 lbs151000 lbs
Tender Light Weight66600 lbs80800 lbs66700 lbs122360 lbs97500 lbs
Total Engine and Tender Weight186300 lbs193400 lbs179950 lbs282360 lbs248500 lbs
Tender Water Capacity3000 gals3500 gals3000 gals6000 gals5500 gals
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal)9 tons10 tons9 tons14 tons14 tons
Minimum weight of rail (calculated)53 lb/yard47 lb/yard46 lb/yard70 lb/yard65 lb/yard
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter57"62"61"73"63"
Boiler Pressure160 psi180 psi160 psi200 psi200 psi
Cylinders (dia x stroke)18" x 24"18" x 24"18" x 24"20" x 26"20" x 26"
Tractive Effort18553 lbs19189 lbs17337 lbs24219 lbs28063 lbs
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 5.15 4.37 4.73 5.20 4.17
Heating Ability
Firebox Area145 sq. ft152 sq. ft140 sq. ft197 sq. ft205 sq. ft
Grate Area23 sq. ft18.70 sq. ft15.30 sq. ft31.60 sq. ft32.30 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface1515 sq. ft1732 sq. ft1777 sq. ft1852 sq. ft1865 sq. ft
Superheating Surface374 sq. ft374 sq. ft
Combined Heating Surface1515 sq. ft1732 sq. ft1777 sq. ft2226 sq. ft2239 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume214.33245.03251.39195.90197.27
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation36803366244863206460
Same as above plus superheater percentage36803366244873947558
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area2320027360224004609847970
Power L14817655757001596613897
Power MT333.60517.51459.74838.07785.58

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassTC
Locobase ID9262
RailroadPere Marquette (PM)
CountryUSA
Whyte4-6-0
Number in Class5
Road Numbers187-191
GaugeStd
Number Built5
BuilderAlco
Year1903
Valve GearStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase13.17'
Engine Wheelbase23.92'
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.55
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender)53.56'
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle)
Weight on Drivers125800 lbs
Engine Weight159900 lbs
Tender Light Weight119200 lbs
Total Engine and Tender Weight279100 lbs
Tender Water Capacity6000 gals
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal)12 tons
Minimum weight of rail (calculated)70 lb/yard
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter63"
Boiler Pressure200 psi
Cylinders (dia x stroke)20" x 26"
Tractive Effort28063 lbs
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.48
Heating Ability
Firebox Area177 sq. ft
Grate Area32.50 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface2410 sq. ft
Superheating Surface
Combined Heating Surface2410 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume254.92
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation6500
Same as above plus superheater percentage6500
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area35400
Power L17319
Power MT384.79

Reference


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