Cotton Belt / Deering & SouthWestern / St Louis, Arkansas & Texas 4-6-0 "Ten-wheeler" Locomotives of the USA


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class A1 (Locobase 8459)

Data from StL&SW 1 - 1932 Folio 725 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. Joseph A Strapac, Cotton Belt Locomotives (Huntington, Calif: Shade Tree Books, 1977, reprinted in 1999 by Indiana University Press), p. 88. See also DeGolyer, Vol 65, pp. 88+. Works number was 54088 in November 1920.

he 8 had a short career. Delivered to the Missouri shortline in 1920, it was taken over by the Cotton Belt (St Louis-Southwestern) in 1929, redesignated A-1, and scrapped in July 1933. Although it was indeed small for a Ten-wheeler, Locobase is still surprised that a buyer for such a new engine couldn't be found.


Class B3 (Locobase 3485)

Data from StL&SW 1 - 1932 Folio 725 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

NY Loco builder information from JF Webber's compilation as supplied by Allen Stanley in March 2004. This large class were works #166-195 (October-November 1886). Webber describes the class as having 16 x 24" cylinders

This railroad was reorganized as the St Louis-Southwestern (Cotton Belt) in 1891. (See http://www.geocities.com/TheTropics/8199/c_belt.html for a detailed history of the Cotton Belt.)

Firebox heating surface includes 16 sq ft of arch tubes. In the twenties, Cotton Belt mechanics replaced slide with piston valves and fitted Walschaerts radial valve gear as well as superheating the locomotives and converting them to oil burners.


Class D2 (Locobase 8466)

(Note: Official name for the Cotton Belt was St. Louis-Southwestern.)

Data from StL&SW 1 - 1932 Folio 725 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. Richmond and Rogers supplied locomotives in this freight Ten-wheeler class. According to a compilation of Richmond locomotives by B.Rumary (25 Kingscombe, Gurney Slade, Radstock, BA3 4TH, ENGLAND) and supplied to Locobase by Allen Stanley in March 2004, Richmond's 6 arrived as a batch representing works #2716-2721 produced in August and September 1898. Rogers' 3 engines arrived in 1899.

See Joseph A Strapac, Cotton Belt Locomotives (Huntington, Calif: Shade Tree Books, 1977, reprinted in 1999 by Indiana University Press), p. 83. He notes that a Southern railroad often bought from Richmond to support the home team (as it were), but that in the case of the D-2s, "Unfortunately for Southern loyalties, the Richmonds were flawed from the time they left the drawing boards. Delivered with boilers pressed to 180 psi and 20" cylinders that were too big for the boiler, "[t]hey didn't steam." Cylinder bushings were fitted within the year to reduce the diameter to 19" and the railroad raised the boiler pressure to the 200 psi shown in the specifications.

All was to no avail, according to Strapac: "Actual horsepower capability on these engines was never reached, and they were always considered less than successful."

The Richmond records show that two were scrapped in 1923, 3 in 1927, and the last in 1933.


Class E2 - Pittsburgh (Locobase 8468)

(Note: Official name for the Cotton Belt was St. Louis-Southwestern.)

Data from StL&SW 1 - 1932 Folio 725 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. According to a compilation of Pittsburgh locomotives by B.Rumary (25 Kingscombe, Gurney Slade, Radstock, BA3 4TH, ENGLAND) and supplied to Locobase by Allen Stanley in March 2004, Pittsburgh delivered works #2258-2267 after completing them in June 1901.

As mentioned in Locobase 8467, where the Rogers E2 Ten-wheelers can be found, this Richmond set was substantially different from the Rogers engines in certain key respects. Most notably, the 70" drivers revealed that these were clearly intended to be passenger locomotives. Also, they had slightly larger boilers. Many were later refitted with Walschaert radial valve gear. (Drury (1993) tells us the driver diameter was increased to 70"by fitting thicker tires over the existing hubs. Paint the tires in white and they'd have looked like 1920s roadsters!)

218 was equipped with a single Nicholson syphon measuring 27 sq ft in heating surface in place of the 17 sq ft of arch tubes originally supplied. 222 later was fitted with 314 2" tubes and owned 2,411 sq ft of heating surface in all.

After almost 30 years of service, 219-200 were scrapped in October 1927. 215 followed in November 1928. 1993 saw 6 dismantled - 217 in February, 223 in March, 222 in October, 216 & 221 in November, and 224 in December. For some reason, 218, renumbered 478 in September 1940, wasn't scrapped until October 1944.


Class E2 - Rogers (Locobase 8467)

(Note: Official name for the Cotton Belt was St. Louis-Southwestern.)

Data from StL&SW 1 - 1932 Folio 725 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

Although often grouped with the 215-224 as the same class, there were differences between this Rogers batch and those produced by Pittsburgh (for which, see Locobase 8468). Of the two, this set was the more frankly freight-oriented group. Also, the set had very slightly shorter tubes and 6 fewer tubes to boot. All had 17 sq ft of arch tubes contributing to the firebox heating surface. One later operated Baker radial valve gear.


Class F1 - original (Locobase 13537)

(Note: Official name for the Cotton Belt was St. Louis-Southwestern.)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Volume 34, p. 55. See also Joseph A Strapac, Cotton Belt Locomotives (Indianapolis, IN: Indiana University Press, 1977), p. 86. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his April 2015 email supplying the tender weight.) Works numbers were 34748-34753 in June 1910.

These were medium-size Ten-wheelers that served local and branch-line demands (as well as switching) for dozens of North American railroads. Their mixed-traffic driver diameter allowed for some passenger duties as well.

Less than 15 years after their saturated, slide-valve appearance on the road, the class was superheated; see Locobase 8469.


Class F1 - superheated (Locobase 8469)

Data from StL&SW 1 - 1932 Folio 725 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. See also Joseph A Strapac, Cotton Belt Locomotives (Indianapolis, IN: Indiana University Press, 1977), p. 86.

(Note: Official name for the Cotton Belt was St. Louis-Southwestern.)

The St Louis-Southwestern bought six medium-sized Ten-wheelers in 1910 that proved highly useful for local service (see Locobase 13537). Joe Strapac comments that like so many batches purchased by the Cotton Belt, "the F1s were purchased as 'bare-minimum' machines" So almost 15 years after they entered service, the railroad superheated the class in 1924-1928. 122 small tubes were sacrificed for a superheater installation whose 28 flues contributed substantially to the engine's evaporative heating surface as well as housing a sizable superheater. In that same period, the slide valves were replaced by 12" (305 mm) piston valves and the cylinders were enlarged to 22" diameter.

The result was a sextet highly valued by the railroad. The class worked throughout World War II, at the end of which (August 1945), 255 suffered a boiler explosion and was scrapped.

252 went to the ferro-knacker next in October 1945, then 251 in November 1946, 250 in November 1947, 253 in August 1949, and 254 in February 1953.


Class G0 (Locobase 16026)

Data from DeGolyer, Volume 48, pp. 57. See also "Ten-Wheeler Locomotive for the St Louis Southwestern", Railway and Locomotive Engineering, Vol 26, No. 9 (September 1913), pp. 312-313; and Joseph A Strapac, Cotton Belt Locomotives (Huntington, Calif: Shade Tree Books, 1977, reprinted in 1999 by Indiana University Press), p. 88. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his 18 March 2015 email and Excel spreadsheet pointing out the differences between this batch and the later 1916 locomotives.) Baldwin works numbers were 40204-40209, 40250-40253 in July 1913.

The R&LE report noted that while many railroads were ordering Pacifics and Mikados, not all passenger and freight service demanded so much tractive effort and power. These 4-6-0s were the answer. Strapac says that the St Louis-Southwestern "was ready for a really up-to-date ten-wheeler ...quite an effective passenger fleet." The spec required them to handle 470 trailing tons up a 1% grade at 30 mph (48 km/h). Baldwin's price for each of this first batch of ten locomotives was $21,900 each.

The St. Louis-Southwestern maintained its TenWheeler fleet long after most railroads had gone to Pacifics. Drury (1993) notes that this group was as modern as the times -- superheated, 14" (356 mm) diameter piston valves, wide firebox, and Walschaerts valve gear. The next batch, produced in 1916, was considerably heavier and had a firebox fitted with arch tubes; see Locobase 5396. All later rolled on Baldwin's disk drivers, which differed from the more widely known Boxpox, said Joseph Strapac, in having "a prominent lip around each opening."

Obviously suited to the local needs, this class saw steam out, being retired in 1945-1952


Class G0 - with arch tubes (Locobase 5396)

Data from table in January 1917 issue of Railway Mechanical Engineer (RME), supplemented by data from StL&SW 1 - 1932 Folio 725 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection; and DeGolyer, Volume 55,, pp. 206+; Joseph A Strapac, Cotton Belt Locomotives (Huntington, Calif: Shade Tree Books, 1977, reprinted in 1999 by Indiana University Press), p. 88. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his 18 March 2015 email and Excel spreadsheet pointing out thedifferences between this batch and the earlier 1913 locomotives..) Baldwin works numbers were 44107-44111 in September 1916; 44246-44248 in October.

After Baldwin delivered ten modern Ten-wheelers to the St Louis-Southwestern in 1913 (Locobase 16026), they returned three years later for eight more. In addition to a substantial difference in weight, the later octet had Baker valve gear and 16 sq ft (1.5 sq m) of arch tubes added to the firebox. As delivered, the adhesion weight came to 165,000 lb (74,863 kg) and total engine weight increased to 209,500 lb (95,025 kg). Cost for each of these eight engines: $24,826.

The 1920s saw the G0s converted to oil-burning and several later received disk drivers, which, Drury notes in a photo caption, "...would have been more at home on a New York Central Hudson." Locobase acknowledges that the refit gave the doughty mixed-traffic engine some class, though. Also, the railroad fitted 651 & 667 with 53 sq ft (4.9 sq m) of Nicholson thermic syphons. Deleting some fire tubes and the arch tubes in the firebox meant that there was a net loss of total evaporative heating surface of 45 sq ft (4.2 sq m), while the direct heating surface area increased by 33 sq ft(3.05 sq m) to 222 (20.6 sq m).

Obviously suited to the local needs, this class saw steam out, being retired in 1945-1952

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassA1B3D2E2 - PittsburghE2 - Rogers
Locobase ID8459 3485 8466 8468 8467
RailroadDeering & SouthWestern (StLSW)St Louis, Arkansas & Texas (StLSW)Cotton Belt (StLSW)Cotton Belt (StLSW)Cotton Belt (StLSW)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-0
Number in Class1309106
Road Numbers8115-144200-208215-224209-214
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built1309106
BuilderBaldwinNew YorkvariousPittsburghRogers
Year19201886189819011900
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft)111413.5013.1713.17
Engine Wheelbase (ft)2123.9224.372424
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.52 0.59 0.55 0.55 0.55
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)48.6747.2952.2559.4253.08
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)23,80042,50049,00046,500
Weight on Drivers (lbs)71,00078,000126,000146,000138,000
Engine Weight (lbs)101,000113,000160,000182,500176,000
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)95,50079,700117,400166,100122,300
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)196,500192,700277,400348,600298,300
Tender Water Capacity (gals)48003800520080005500
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)8102650295018
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)3943708177
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)5157617061
Boiler Pressure (psi)170120200200200
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)16" x 24"17" x 24"19" x 26"20" x 26"20" x 26"
Tractive Effort (lbs)17,40812,41226,15825,25728,984
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.08 6.28 4.82 5.78 4.76
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)90.70121154194194
Grate Area (sq ft)18.1016.7028.6032.5032.70
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)12031225193123692316
Superheating Surface (sq ft)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)12031225193123692316
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume215.40194.29226.32250.59244.98
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation30772004572065006540
Same as above plus superheater percentage30772004572065006540
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area15,41914,52030,80038,80038,800
Power L142863309643782417068
Power MT399.25280.58337.88373.32338.74

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassF1 - originalF1 - superheatedG0G0 - with arch tubes
Locobase ID13,537 8469 16,026 5396
RailroadCotton Belt (StLSW)Cotton Belt (StLSW)Cotton Belt (StLSW)Cotton Belt (StLSW)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-0
Number in Class66108
Road Numbers250-255250-255650-659660-667
GaugeStdStdStdStd
Number Built66108
BuilderBaldwinCotton BeltBaldwinBaldwin
Year1910192419131916
Valve GearStephensonWalschaertWalschaertBaker
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft)13.1713.171515
Engine Wheelbase (ft)242426.1726.17
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.55 0.55 0.57 0.57
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)58.1758.1761.4461.44
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)52,60059,000
Weight on Drivers (lbs)147,000156,400150,000172,000
Engine Weight (lbs)187,000198,000195,000222,000
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)145,000157,400172,000195,000
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)332,000355,400367,000417,000
Tender Water Capacity (gals)7000710090009000
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)153100153500
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)82878396
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)62626969
Boiler Pressure (psi)200185200200
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)21" x 28"22" x 28"22" x 28"22" x 28"
Tractive Effort (lbs)33,85734,37233,38933,389
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.34 4.55 4.49 5.15
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)200223173189
Grate Area (sq ft)32.7032.7049.6049.60
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)2510217524582474
Superheating Surface (sq ft)464532532
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)2510263929903006
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume223.62176.55199.53200.83
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation6540605099209920
Same as above plus superheater percentage6540713811,70611,706
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area40,00048,68140,82844,604
Power L1646311,58615,14315,323
Power MT290.78489.95667.69589.21


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