Santa Fe 2-10-4 "Texas" Locomotives of the USA

The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad flirted with the 2-10-4 wheel arrangement for nineteen years before it placed an order for more than one locomotive. The flirting began in 1919, with experimental number 3829, a 2-10-2 that was fitted with a four-wheel trailing truck. When the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad took delivery of its last series of 2-10-2 locomotives it had the Baldwin Locomotive Works, as an experiment, equip one of them (number 3829) with a four-wheel trailing truck. This experimental 2-10-4 locomotive was the first of this wheel arrangement and had 63" diameter drivers, 30" x 32" cylinders, a 220 psi boiler pressure, a tractive effort of 85,485 pounds and each weighed 396,900 pounds. The experiment did not yield any conclusive results and number 3829 remained in service as a 2-10-4 until it was retired in 1955 and none of the other Class 3800s were fitted with four-wheel trucks.

The second flirtation occurred with the delivery of number 5000, a single 2-10-4 locomotive in 1930. This Baldwin-built, 502,600 pound "Texas" type locomotive had 69" diameter drivers which were higher than most freight motive power at the time and with a 300 psi boilers pressure exerted 95,584 pounds of tractive effort.. From the very beginning, number 5000 was nicknamed "Madam Queen". It was this single locomotive that proved the value of the four-wheel trailing truck and high drivers on 2-10-4s and led the AT&SF to order thirty-five of them starting in 1938. "Madam Queen" operated heavy freight and ran up 1,700,000 miles before it was retired in 1953. Number 5000 was a coal-fired locomotive and was converted to an oil burner in 1940.

Ten "Texas" type locomotives were delivered from Baldwin in 1938. Five of them (road numbers 5001 through 5005) were coal burners and the other five (road numbers 5006 through 5010) burned oil. These Class 5001 locomotives had 74" diameter drivers, 30" x 34" cylinders, a 310 psi boiler pressure, and a tractive effort of 93,000 pounds. The coal burners weighed 540,500 pounds and the oil burners weighed 533,000 pounds.

Another order was given to Baldwin for twenty five oil burning 2-10-4s which it delivered in 1944. These locomotives were assigned road numbers 5011 through 5036 and were similar to the ones delivered in 1938.

There are five surviving AT&SF "Texas" type locomotives:

* 5000 - "Madam Queen" is at the Railroad Artifacts Preservation Society in Amarillo, TX

* 5011 - Museum of Transportation in St. Louis, MO

* 5017 - National Railroad Museum in Green Bay, WI

* 5021 - North of the California State Railroad Museum Shop, Sacramento, CA

* 5030 - Salvador Perez Park, Santa Fe, NM

"Madam Queen" was donated to the City of Amarillo, Texas by the AT&SF in 1957. It received little upkeep and was deteriorating badly when, in 1992, a small group of railroad enthusiasts formed the Texas Panhandle Railroad Historical Society of Amarillo, Texas. The TPRHS, with the aid of the City of Amarillo, undertook a project to restore number 5000. The cosmetic restoration was completed in the summer of 1996. In 2003, a new group was formed under the name of Railroad Artifacts Preservation Society to take charge of the locomotives. Plans are to put it into a building and to that end it was moved to it present location in August 2005. After the relocation, the Railroad Artifacts Preservation Society volunteers concentrated on the cosmetic restoration of the locomotive.  This restoration took three years and was completed in August of 2008. As of 2011 the locomotives is still not inside.

Roster by Richard Duley

ClassQty.Road NumberYear Built Builder Notes
5000 150001930Baldwin1
  1. Number 5000 is preserved and is on display in Santa Fe Park in Amarillo, TX.
  2. Numbers 5001-5010 scrapped in 1959
  3. Numbers 5011, 5017, 5021 and 5030 are preserved. Number 5011 is on display at the Museum of Transportation in St. Louis, MO, Number 5017 is at the National Railroad Museum in Green Bay, WI, Number 5021 is at the California State Railroad Museum Shop, in Sacramento, CA and Number 5030 is at Salvador Perez Park, in Santa Fe, NM. All the others scrapped in 1959.

Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class 3829 (Locobase 8282)

Data from AT&SF 9 -1920 locomotive diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. All of Drawing Room Specification Book Number 61 of the DeGolyer Library's BaldwinRaildata collection is devoted to Santa Fe locomotive orders in the late 19teens and 1920s. The 3829's specs run from page 339 to 366.

Information about how many, when, and by whom this class was supplied from (accessed 6 Feb 2006), the Santa Fe All-Time Steam Roster maintained by Evan Werkema. Works number was 52237 in August 1919.

This was a premature Texas arrangement, although clearly it was meant to solve the same problem. Although the firebox dimensions were the same as the 3800 class of 2-10-2s from which this locomotive was extracted, the trailing truck's two axles bore 12,500 more pounds and allowed a somewhat lower axle loading on all of the driven axles. Also the boiler layout changed with this boiler having 20 more small tubes and 4 fewer flues than the Santa Fes. (The locomotive's Commonwealth trailing truck -- fitted after 1925 -- redistributed the weight more in line with the 3800 2-10-2s.) It was never altered to run as a 2-10-2 like her near-sisters.

This was the Santa Fe's only 2-10-2 for 11 years and the next one -- #5000 "Madame Queen" (Locobase 457) -- reflected the "superpower" revolution in large US locomotives that had occurred in the meantime.

Class 5000 (Locobase 457)

Data from 1930 Locomotive Cyclopedia and from diagram hosted on, accessed 11 March 2007. See also extended set of specifications at DeGolyer, Volume 82, pp. 358+. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his 2 July 2015 email pointing out the tender's original capacity.) Works number was 61524 in October 1930.

The original Baldwin specs show that three thermic syphons added 127 sq ft (11.8 sq m) to the firebox heating surface, which also comprised 130 sq ft (12.08 sq m) in combustion chamber and 22 sq ft (2.04 sq m) in two fire brick tubes. The firebox crown sheet and side sheet and the combustion chamber were made in one piece. Later diagrams show that the fire brick tubes had been removed; superheat was then calculated at 2,550 sq ft (236.9 sq m). Piston valves measured 15" (381 mm) in diameter

Madame Queen (# 5000), was a single locomotive produced in 1930. This was a path-breaking engine in its combination of high adhesion and relatively tall drivers supporting a very large boiler pressed to an unprecedented degree. Indeed, except for the 69" drivers, which were supplanted by 74" gliders, this design pretty well established the dimensions for the Santa Fe's fleet of Texas engines: 5001-5010 (Locobase 458), and 5011-5035 (Locobase 91).

The Baldwin specs show that the adhesion weight forecasts fell short. Maximum axle load was supposed be 72,150 lb (32,727 kg) and total weight on the drivers should come to 349,910 lb (158,717 kg). Apparently the railroad recognized the difficulties inherent in predicting weights for such a new design as they did not refuse the engine as the specs suggested they should:"Locos. will not be accepted by Ry co if weight per axle varies more than 500 pounds above or below that specified."

Chris Hohl pointed out that this first locomotive came to the railroad trailing a tender with a 27-ton (24,494 kg) capacity.

Also found in the specs is a detailed justification by General Steel Castings Corp. for the cast-steel bed with cylinders cast integrally. "On the basis of the above locomotive bed with integral cylinder weights a saving of 4,550 pounds is indicated over the separate cylinder design." GSCC was established by Baldwin at its Eddystone Plant in 1928.

Elesco supplied the K 50 E feed water heater.

See Locobase 8282 for the earlier 3829, a 1919 singleton derived from the 3800 class of 2-10-2s, but fitted with a two-axle trailing truck.

Class 5001 (Locobase 458)

Data from tables in 1947 Locomotive Cyclopedia, supplemented by Alfred W Bruce, The Steam Locomotive in America - Its development in the twentieth century (New York: W W Norton, 1952), p 311 and "Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe steam engine diagrams and blueprints," Kansas Memory, a website of the Kansas Historical Society, diagram at . (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his 24 October 2015 email pointing out the oil-burners' tender data.) Works numbers were 621553-62162.

Firebox heating surface included 168 sq ft (15.6 sq m) from three thermic syphons and arch tubes. The class also had Worthington Type 6-SA feed water heaters, an American multiple throttle

Some confusion about this class but it appears to sort out as follows: Madame Queen", (# 5000), was a single locomotive produced in 1930 with 69" drivers; see Locobase 457. In 1938, ten more --five coal, five oil-burning -- were produced with 74" drivers and larger boilers; these are described in this entry.

The oil-burners' tenders carried 20,000 US gallons (75,700 litres) and 7,000 gallons (26,495 litres) of fuel oil; empty weight was 171,800 lb (77,927 kg) and weight fully loaded reached 394,600 lb (178,987 kg). They rolled on either two six-wheel trucks; each Buckeye truck's wheel base was 100"(2.54 m), the Pullman trucks stretched to 150" (3.81 m) each.

Finally, the last 25 (5011-5035) were built during WW II with roller bearings and the 16-wheel tenders (Locobase 91).

Cylinder HP was over 6,000 hp. The tall drivers were unusual for so large a freight engine.

Bruce observes that these locomotives developed probably the highest piston thrust ever recorded -- 219,000 lb (99,337 kg) . To absorb such loads, the driving axles measured 15" (381 mm) in diameter and the frames were 7" (178 mm) deep. This class was later refitted with 105 sq ft (9.75 sq m) of security circulators in place of the thermic syphons; total firebox heating surface decreased to 569 sq ft (52.85 sq m).

Class 5011 (Locobase 91)

Data from tables and diagrams in 1947 Locomotive Cyclopedia. See also "Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe steam engine diagrams and blueprints," Kansas Memory, a website of the Kansas Historical Society, diagram at . Baldwin works numbers were 70817-70841 in 1944.

These were the last twenty five 2-10-4s built for the Santa Fe. Built during WW II as oil burners, they represented the peak of rigid-wheelbase freight locomotive design (although their unusually tall drivers allowed their use, quite successfully, in passenger service).

Thermic syphons contributed 30 sq ft (2.78 sq m) to firebox heating surface. (Locobase is puzzled by the much smaller area shown for this class compared to earlier Santa Fe 2-10-4s. He wonders if the smaller firebox reflected a scarcity of the metals that would have been used to construct them.) Piston valves measured 15 inches (381 mm) in diameter.

As steam producers, these engines had few peers. Cylinder HP was over 6,000 hp. Regard the high percentage of combined heating surface devoted to superheating and the very large ratio of tube and flue cross-sectional area to grate area. Even as large a firebox as had these Texas engines was only just big enough to service the immense boilers.

Timken roller bearings applied to all axles (including the tender trucks). Worthington 6SA feedwater heater, cast-steel bed with integral cylinders, lightweight rods were among the other features of this awesome locomotive design. As with the earlier Texas engines, this class had Worthington 6-SA feed water heaters and American multiple throttles.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Locobase ID8282 457 458 91
RailroadSanta Fe (ATSF)Santa Fe (ATSF)Santa Fe (ATSF)Santa Fe (ATSF)
Number in Class111025
Road Numbers382950005001-50105011-5035
Number Built111025
Valve GearWalschaertWalschaertWalschaertWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft)2224.5026.2026.20
Engine Wheelbase (ft)45.1247.5850.2050.20
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.49 0.51 0.52 0.52
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)85.1899.5698.6498.64
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)61,00076,57076,55077,400
Weight on Drivers (lbs)300,000372,000371,600380,300
Engine Weight (lbs)402,000502,600545,260536,000
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)277,000375,000366,200464,700
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)679,000877,600911,4601,000,700
Tender Water Capacity (gals)15,00020,00021,00024,500
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)2023267000
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)100124124127
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)63697474
Boiler Pressure (psi)195300310310
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)30" x 32"30" x 34"30" x 34"30" x 34"
Tractive Effort (lbs)75,771113,087108,961108,961
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 3.96 3.29 3.41 3.49
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)417598631494
Grate Area (sq ft)88.30121.70121.70121.70
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)5311611460755937
Superheating Surface (sq ft)1298274126752640
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)6609885587508577
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume202.87219.80218.40213.44
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation17,21936,51037,72737,727
Same as above plus superheater percentage20,66247,82849,42249,422
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area97,578235,014256,249200,613
Power L114,92141,88845,77844,214
Power MT548.251241.221357.951281.55