The art of steam locomotive design and manufacturing in North America was concentrated in three very successful companies; the American Locomotive Company, the Baldwin Locomotive Works and the Lima Locomotive Works.
These companies had roots back to the earliest days of the steam era and were dominant right up to the demise of the market in the late 1940"s. Ironically, not one of these superb steam locomotive builders was able to make a commercial success in the diesel dominated railroad market, and each has ceased manufacturing locomotives.
All three of these locomotive builders acquired unique characteristics such as the shape of their builders plates. They also became known for their unique accomplishments: ALCO, for developing 3-cylinder steam locomotives; Lima, for developing 2-8-4 "Super-Power" locomotives; and Baldwin for designing duplex drive locomotives and for being the largest, longest-lived, and most successful of the steam locomotive builders.
|ALCO, Schenectady, NY -- ALCO Historic Photos|
During World War II, ALCO produced army tanks (7,362 of them), tank
destroyers, shells, bombs, gun carriages, gun mounts and 4,488 locomotives.
Employment increased three fold to over 15,000 people by 1945.
|Builder||Location||Years in Production||Year of Merger||Locomotives Built Prior to Merger|
|Brooks Locomotive Works||Dunkirk, NY||1869 -||1901||4200|
|Cooke (Danforth-Cooke) Locomotive & Machine Works||Paterson, NJ||1852 - 1926||1901||3000|
|Dickson Manufacturing Company||Scranton, PA||1862 - 1909||1901||1400|
|Manchester (Amoskeag) Locomotive Works||Manchester, NH||1849 - 1913||1901||1800|
|Montreal Locomotive Works||Montreal, QB||1900 - today||1902|
|Pittsburgh Locomotive & Car Works||Pittsburgh, PA||1867 - 1919||1901||2700|
|Rhode Island Locomotive Works||Providence, RI||1866 - 1907||1901||3400|
|Richmond Locomotive Works||Richmond, VA||1886 - 1927||1901||4500|
|Rogers Locomotive Works||Paterson, NJ||1837 - 1913||1905||6300|
|Schenectady Locomotive Works||Schenectady, NY||- 1968||1901|
In 1955 the company became known as ALCO Products, Inc and in 1964 it was bought by the Worthington Corp.
Over all of its time (prior to merger and after), ALCO produced about 75,000 locomotives with more than 63% of them built in Schenectady, NY. In fact, all of the locomotive manufacturing (except in Canada) was consolidated in Schenectady by 1931 and continued until 1968.
The American Locomotive Company was known for some of the "finest" steam locomotives ever built. A few examples of these "fine" locomotives were:
Most of the general files, technical manuals and ALCO designs are located in the Special Collections Research Center at Syracuse University. The Builder's Photos and many of the Erecting Cards (photographs of the drawings) and Painting Diagrams are in the possession of the Mohawk & Hudson Chapter of the NRHS. This group of volunteers is known as the "ALCO Historic Photos Project" and is preserving over 32,000 ALCO negatives.
ALCO Historic Photos
|The Baldwin Locomotive Works, Eddystone, PA|
|A 2018 view of the same location.|
Baldwin made its reputation building steam locomotives for the Pennsylvania Railroad, the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe.and many of the other railroads in North America and for overseas railroads in England, France, India, Haiti and Egypt.
In the late 1940's it was very clear that the steam locomotive days were over and each of the big three steam locomotive builders were far behind EMD with diesel designs and customers. Lima merged with engine builder Hamilton in an effort to get a foot hold in the diesel market but made little progress. In desperation Lima-Hamilton merged with Baldwin in 1950 to become the Baldwin-Lima-Hamilton Corporation. However, by 1956 BLH ceased production of common carrier size locomotives.
In the later days of the steam era, Baldwin was in the forefront of locomotive construction with the many 2-8-2 Mikados it built and its ability to build small quantities of unique designs, such as the Cab Forward 4-8-8-2's it built for the Southern Pacific. Also it was involved with its various railroad customers to develop new and improved locomotive designs the last being the 4-8-4 Northerns.
Most of the records of Baldwin were destroyed in 1954. What survived has found its way to the DeGolyer Library (Baldwin Records) at the Southern Methodist University in Dallas, TX. [Details] A few drawings are located at the Pennsylvania State Archives in Harrisburg, PA. The Builders Photos are located at the Railroad Museum of Pennsylvania in Strasburg, PA.
|The Lima Locomotives Works, Lima, OH|
|A 2018 view of the same location.|
The Lima Machine Works was established in 1869 and produced agricultural and sawmill equipment. In the 1870s a Michigan logger, Ephraim Shay, developed a geared locomotive for use on wood-railed logging tramways. In 1878 Lima Machine Works built a locomotive to Shay's design. In 1891 the company reorganized and became the Lima Locomotive & Machine Company. The company began building locomotives for Class 1 railroads in 1911: 23 0-6-0 switchers for the Southern and Mobile & Ohio. In 1912 the company again reorganized into the Lima Locomotive Corporation. In 1916 it was bought by Joel Coffin and became the Lima Locomotive Works. In 1947 Lima Locomotive Works merged with General Machinery Corporation of Hamilton, OH to form Lima-Hamilton Corporation. In 1951 it was merged with Baldwin Locomotive Works to form the Baldwin-Lima-Hamilton Corporation.
In the late 1960s and 1970s, Baldwin-Lima-Hamilton was making construction cranes (the kind on crawler tracks or rubber tires). Sometime in the 1970s, Clark equipment bought BLH and continued to use the site to make their biggest (220 ton capacity) crawler cranes in Lima. A very large (Billion Electron Volt) X-ray machine was installed in a free-standing building to test the cast base frames for cracks. In 1980 Clark pulled out of Lima. The X-ray facility was sold to a private company that does some hull testing for the tank plant (M1 Abrams was Chrysler, then General Dynamics, not sure who runs the place for the Army now) just a few miles up the road. If you look around when you're driving, you will still see cranes with BLH, LIMA, CLARK or some combination on the counterweight where bridges are being re-built. In fact, there's one on a job site on I-75 just south of OH 725 exit with BLH LIMA on the back.
The Lima Locomotive Works was located in Lima, OH between the B&O's Cincinnati-Toledo line and Nickel Plate's main line and shops.
Lima Locomotive Works is most famous for developing the Super Power 2-8-4 design. Around 1920, the railroads and locomotive builders were trying various techniques to increase the speed of freight trains. Some approaches used high-pressure boilers, three-cylinders, water-tube fireboxes, or all three (Baldwin 60,000). William Woodard of Lima Locomotive Works experimented in increasing the grate area to greatly increase the steaming ability of the locomotive. A locomotive with a 100 sq. ft. grate area (very large for a locomotive of that day) was constructed. The firebox was so large that it required a four-wheel trailing truck to support it. The 2-8-4 wheel arrangement was born. This demonstrator locomotive also had a booster on the rear axle of the trailing truck. It was designated number "1", class A-1 and was so successful from the start that a number of railroad lines soon placed orders for more of this type. Lima Locomotive Work became famous for developing this design.
The old Lima Shay shop and the heavy erection sheds were demolished during the spring of 1998. They had been left to rot for 20 years before they were taken down. Today the Lima Locomotive Works location is just a pile of rubble. [Google View] The Lima Locomotive Works records including builder's drawings are stored at two places. Most of them are stored on the Second Floor of the Big Four Building at the California State Railroad Museum Library in Sacramento, CA.
California State Railroad Museum Library [Search]
Some of the drawings and the Builders Photos are at:
Allen County Museum
The Pennsylvania Railroad was the fourth largest locomotive builder in the United States. They built more locomotives (6,873) than any other railroad (2,289 at their Altoona Machine Shop and 4,584 at their Juniata Works).
In January of 1897 the Norfolk & Western Railway took over the Roanoke Machine Works, a small locomotive builder in Roanoke, VA. This new acquisition became the Roanoke Shops of the N&W where it built 295 steam locomotives between 1897 and 1953.